Relationship of job satisfaction and employee performance (MBA HRM Dissertation)

Abstract

The research project is based on the investigation and evaluation of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance, case study of Grange Hotels, UK. The researcher is self-motivated and self-initiated to complete this research project in relation to academic, organizational and personal perspective. Based on the critical review of the literature, it is clear that job satisfaction is an important and crucial aspect to work performance of the employees. The job satisfaction can be influenced by several factors, including organizational structure & culture, organizational commitment, salary structure, empowerment and power delegation, financial and non-financial reward systems, and so on.

The author has used three most common and effective research methods, such as questionnaire survey, semi-structured interview and document review & analysis etc. for the purpose of collecting and gathering data and information in accordance with research aims, objectives and research questions. The research findings reveal that most of the general employees within the case studied organization; Grange Hotels, UK are satisfy in some cases with the job itself, organizational commitment, and working environment but there may need some improve within the organizational structure, leadership styles, reward systems etc. to improve job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees.  Thus, finally, the researcher would like to mention that this research report is a standard research report with having cost-effective and constructive conclusions and recommendations both the academic and organizational perspective.

Chapter 1: Introduction and Background

Introduction

Job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization is becoming vital concern for the organizational management and thus to achieve goals and objectives. In recent times, due to changes in organizational management approaches such as changes in organizational structures and cultures because of competitiveness in the market in which they are operating its business, leading to focus on the job satisfaction and performance of the employees within the organization.

Job satisfaction is quite highly correlated with overall happiness of the employees within an organization, and can be looked at as one of its main components for the work performance of those employees (Argyle, 1989).

Based on the information derived from review of literature and from the case studied organization, it is clear that the determination of the effect of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees is very relevant and important. On the other hand, the researcher thinks that there is no research on the effects of overall happiness or life-satisfaction on productivity or work performance within an organization, particularly within the hospitality industry, like Grange Hotels, UK. However, there is a lot of research on the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance.

The case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK is one the famous and prominent hotels within the UK. They have several branches within the UK, located in most busy and tourist places. For example, they have branch in Grange St. Paul’s Hotel, London; Grange Tower Bridge Hotel, London; Grange Holborn Hotel, London; The Buckingham, London and others in busiest and tourist visited locations within the UK (Grange Hotels, 2011).

The researcher has been working for nearly 2 years within the hotel, so she knows information and knowledge about the effect of job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the Grange Hotels, UK. She will be able to cover all of the research issues and concepts that arrived from the case studied organization and from the review of literature.

Thus, it can say that this research project is most relevant and appropriate both from organizational and academic purposes in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of the job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

Research Background

This research project is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. The case studied organization is a hotel group located in the most exciting and excellent city of the world, London, UK. This is the London’s leading independent hotel group. Grange Hotels provide a wide choice of accommodation and venues all across London, designed to meet your corporate and company requirements (Grange Hotels, 2011).

Many researchers identify in several ways in definition of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is one of the most widely studies work-related attitudes in the fields of industrial and organizational psychology, and organizational behaviour (Spector, 1997).

Herzberg et al. (1959) have examined the relationships between job satisfaction and performance and formulized a theory base on their results. They defined job satisfaction as an attempt by management to design tasks in such a way to build in the opportunity for personal achievement, recognition, challenge and individual growth. In addition, Furnham (2005) stated that job satisfaction provides workers with more responsibility and autonomy in carrying out a complete task, and with timely feedback on their performance.   In similar way, many researchers and authors have described that job satisfaction has great impact on the work performance of the employees within an organization.

The excellence and quality in customer services is the prime aspect for the organization. In this case, employee’s job satisfaction and work performance is major concern for the organization (Grange Hotels, 2011). So, this research in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within the organization is most appropriate and relevant from the organizational perspective. While during the review of literature, the researcher has identified some gaps and lacking in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, particularly hospitality industry. So, in relation to fulfil existing gaps and lacking in literatures this research is most effective and appropriate from point of academic perspective.

Thus, the researcher would like to opine that this research project is most appropriate and perfect both from organizational and academic perspective in accordance with the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

 A. Overview of the case studied organization (Grange Hotels, UK)

A collection of private luxury hotels all superbly located in the heart of the world’s most exciting city London. The opportunities range from royal banquets to the pampered luxury enjoyed in our private health clubs. The organization believes that the Grange Hotels can satisfy every requirement of the customers and visitors (Grange Hotels, 2011).

The organization has following important aspects in relation to employee management and work performance that derived from Corporate Social Responsibility, Grange Hotels, UK section (Grange Hotels Corporate Responsibility 2011)-

  • Recruit, promote and retain all talented individuals by offering benefits;
  • Provide equal opportunities and value within the workplace;
  • Provide safe and secure workplace for all employees;
  • Provide training to employees to develop skills and competencies;
  • Provide different reward systems based on the performance of the employees; and
  • System of behaving of all employees on corporate responsibly way that will make positive social, economic and environmental contribution.

Based on the management approach and attitudes towards the employees within the Grange Hotels, UK, the researcher would like to mention that the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on employees’ work performance is appropriate and relevant both from organizational and academic perspective.

B. Theoretical framework associated with the research

To formulate the theoretical framework associated with this research is important and vital in accordance with research background. This research project is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within Grange Hotels, UK. So, there should be clear link and citation of the previous work in relation to the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. The following theoretical framework can be used in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance-

Table: 1.1. Theoretical framework associated with this research project (the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance)
Theory and/or main research issue/concept/problem/opportunity Author of the original work Relevant to this research project (job satisfaction and work performance)
Nature of organizational structure and commitment to equality and fairness for the employees within the organization. Grange Hotels, (2011). This work will be able to compare and contrast the relevant theories and practices available into the literatures and thus to make suggestions and recommendations for the case studied organization.
Nature of corporate responsibilities in relation to job satisfaction and performance of the employees within the organization. Grange Hotels, (2011). The identification of corporate responsibilities can help the researcher to analyse and evaluate the current practices and conditions in relation to job satisfaction and work performance within the organization and make valid conclusions and recommendations both to academic and organizational perspective. 

 

Definition and factors of job satisfaction and job performance and thus role of job satisfaction on employee’s work performance within an organization. Pinks et al. (2006); Hertzberg (1959); Tsai et al. (2010); and Hodgetts (1991). This will help the researcher to set the definitions of the job satisfaction and work performance as well as to identify the relevant factors. This will also help to identify and evaluate the role and significances of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization.
Measuring the level of job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization. McKenna (2000); Archnahr (2006); Hakala (2008); and Gillikin (2011). To explore and identify some key job satisfaction and work performance measurement tools and techniques available in the existing literatures and how the case studied organization is measuring the level of job satisfaction and work performance of the employees.

Source: Author’s analysis based on chapter 1: Introduction and Background and chapter 2: Critical review of Literature.

C. Reasons for selection of research topic

The selection of research topic plays significant role to apply and implement knowledge and understanding about a particular research area. It determines the research scopes and limitations with the selection of relevant research topic. The researcher has been studying business and administration management, focusing on human resource management. Thus, the selection of this research topic i.e. the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK is appropriate and relevant.

Table: 1.2. Reasons for the selection of research topic (job satisfaction and work performance of employees within an organization)

Rationale in relation to-

Explanation of the rationale for selection

Individual perspective The researcher will be able to apply and implement knowledge and understanding about the business and administration management, focusing on human resource management into practical life in future. This research will also help her to develop future career aspect through improving skills and competencies.
Academic perspective With this research report having valid conclusions and recommendations, some gaps and lacking can be reduce and eliminate as well as there are several issues and concepts that can be regard as future research initiatives.
Organizational perspective The researcher has been working within the case studied organization, so she will be able to explore and identify the real situation and conditions in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization. Based on the findings, the author will make valid conclusions and recommendations for the organization that can help the organization to improve current situations and conditions to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

Source: Author’s analysis based on personal experience on research project

Research issue/problem statement

This research project is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Based on the case studied organization’s current situations and conditions, it is clear that the organization is commitment to provide excellent and quality services to their clients, customers, visitors and tourists from different parts of the world. So, there is need for the identification and analysis of the employee’s job satisfaction and how does this affecting the work performance within the organization in relation to achieve goals and objectives of the organization.

Research questions

The primary query of the research is the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employees’ work performance. Based on the main research question, following research questions can be construct in relation to research aims and objectives-

  • What are the factors that can influence the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees in their workplace, such as Grange Hotels, UK?
  • How the level of performance of employees can be measured based on their job description and job satisfaction?
  • How the organization/company, such as Grange Hotels, UK can motivates the employees that will enhance work performance by increasing job satisfaction?
  • What are the positive and negative impacts within the organization/company?
  • How the job satisfaction can increase work performance of the employees within the organization/company, such as Grange Hotels, UK?

Research aims and objectives

The primary aim of this research is to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance. The sub aims in accordance with primary aim include- to identify the factors that influence satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees; to evaluate the productivity and efficiency of employees’ based on their job satisfaction; and to identify and evaluate how the job satisfaction influence the performance of the employees.

The key objectives of this research are as follows-

  • To identify and analyse the factors based on existing theories and empirical evidences that influence the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK;
  • To measure the level of work performance of the employees in accordance with their job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the collection and gathering of primary and secondary data and information within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK;
  • To identify and analyse the current scenarios of the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employees as well as the level of work performance and efficiency of them within the Grange Hotels, UK; and
  • To establish valid conclusions and recommendations with the identification of impacts, both positive and negative of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction on employees’ work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

 Study of the research scope

This research project will investigate and analyse the effect of the job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Data both primary and secondary has been collected through semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and document analysis etc. The researcher has made valid conclusions and recommendations base on the research findings where there are several issues and concepts that need further investigation and analysis that can lead future research initiatives. Thus, the researcher would like to opine that this research has created several research scopes in the field of job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization.

Overall research limitations

Every research project has some limitations that can affect the overall research activities and research report. Throughout the research project, there were following limitations-

i. Lack of available time: The researcher has limited time to complete the research project. This lack of available time has affected the collection and gathering of relevant data and information from the different sources- primary, secondary and tertiary etc.

ii. Lack of financial resources: The researcher has limited financial resources that in some cases affected the overall completion of the research project. For example, due to lack of available money, she carried out limited number of questionnaire surveys and interviews within the case studied organization, as she needs to travel more to carry out more surveys and interviews that cost more money. The researcher has overcome this limitation, because she has been working within the organization that helped her to make appointment in most convenient ways with the management personnel and general employees of the organization.

iii. Lack of skills and competencies in relation to interview and survey completion: The researcher has lack of skills and competencies in relation to conduct and complete survey and interview. This thus affected the collection of primary data from the surveys and interviews. But the researcher has carried out document review and analysis that helped her to support data and information that derived from the surveys and interviews as well as she had carried out pilot study that increased confidence and ability to complete survey and interview.

iv. Small sample size and fewer amounts of data and information: The researcher has to set small sample size because of limited time and financial resources and thus this affected the collection of data and information.

Conclusion

In this chapter some of the major issues and concepts such as research background, research aims, research objectives, research questions, theoretical framework, reasons for selecting research topic, overall limitations within the research project etc. have been covered in most convenient ways to highlight the research subject and research areas in relation to the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, case of Grange Hotels, UK.

Chapter 2: Critical Review of Literature

Introduction

Critical review of literature is the vital and important part within the research project for the purpose of exploring, identifying and analysing existing theories and practices into the literature about the research topic or research area (Saunders et al. 2009). They described that the critical review of literature builds the backbone of the research project and thus shape out the research tasks and activities with setting out and creating standard research questions, aims and objectives in accordance with research issues/problems/opportunities/concepts. Thus, it can said that the critical review of literature plays significant role to conduct the research project in most effective and appropriately.

The researcher was more motivated and self-esteemed regarding the research title as she has been working for nearly 2 years within the case studied organization. Thus, the researcher believes she will be able to explore and evaluate the real situation in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization. This chapter has discussed and explained some major issues and concepts regarding the critical review of literature such as literature review sources and strategies; theoretical framework for references; concluding remarks on critical review of literature and limitations on critical review of literature etc. Thus, it can be said that the critical review of literature was very effective to investigate existing theories and practices in relation to the effect of job satisfaction on employee’s work performance within an organization, case of Grange Hotels, UK.

Literature review sources and strategy

It is vital to establish the strategies for the critical review of literature, because it helps the research to understand the scopes and dimensions of the research areas as well as to explore the real key themes and thus available theories and practices done by previous prominent researchers and other scholars. For example, according to Fink (2009), research literature review has many uses and thus it requires setting appropriate strategy to achieve following goals and objectives within the research project- to identify inclusion or exclusion criteria; to establish data extraction methods; to evaluate study quality; and to apply and implement techniques for synthesizing and analysing research findings etc. The researcher will use relevant books, articles, journals and other publications in relation to read the relevant data and information in accordance with research aims and objectives.

The researcher would like to mention that there were four sections such as i. Factors that influence job satisfaction and dissatisfaction; ii. Measuring job satisfaction; iii. Measuring work performance; iv. Relationship between job satisfaction and work performance; and v. Role of job satisfaction on work performance. There were particular sources and strategies to collect and gather relevant data and information for each of those sections. For example, to read and search relevant books to collect and gather data and information about the factors that influences job satisfaction and dissatisfaction has been applied in relation to section one. Like this, several sources and strategies have been used to explore and investigate all relevant research works in accordance with this research project. Thus, the author wants to say that the searching of relevant sources and implementation of appropriate strategies helped to collect and gather relevant things in respect to the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance: a case study of Grange Hotels, UK. The literature review sources and strategies can be represent as follows-

Table: 2.1. Literature review sources and strategies
Main issue Smaller view Wider view
Focus Especially focusing on the job satisfaction and employee work performance in hospitality (hotel) industry within the UK. Job satisfaction and employee work performance in different business industry, focusing on hospitality industry.
Subject area Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction; employee’s work performance; and organizational performance etc. Employee attitude to job; employee performance; and achievement of organizational goals and objectives etc.
Business sector Hospitality industry Services to guests and visitors from around the world, particularly from Europe.
Publication period Last 10 years. Last 25 years, in some cases older.
Literature type Referred books and articles, scientific journals, magazines and other relevant sources etc. Academic books; scientific journals and articles; and organizational (e.g. hotels) news publications etc.

In this research project, all the secondary and tertiary sources that have been used not older than 10 years in relation to research title- the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance: a case study of Grange Hotels, UK. The researcher has used most appropriate and authentic sources for the purpose of critical review of literature in relation to research topic. There was uses of some internet sources those were most appropriate and relevant with the research aims, objectives and research questions. All of these sources were appropriate and effective to complete research project.

Critical literature review structure

The researcher has used some books, recent articles, journals, publications and other electronic sources to collect secondary and tertiary data from the critical review of the literature. The key themes that has investigated and explored from the review of literature can be shown as follows-

  1. Factors that influence job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees within workplace;
  2. How to measure level of job satisfaction;
  3. How to measure work performance;
  4. Relationship between job satisfaction and work performance; and
  5. Role of job satisfaction on work performance.

i. Factors that influences job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees within workplace

According to Pinks et al. (2006), job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors e.g. the relationships with the supervisor; the working environment and its quality; degree of fulfilment in the working place etc. They also mentioned that personal traits such as age, education level, tenure, positions, marital status, year of services and hours of work per week. They have developed following figure in relation to factors that influences job satisfaction and that has impact on the work performance of the employees within an organization. The researcher will try to identify and investigate any one of the above mentioned factors within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK for the purpose of comparing and contrasting the effectiveness and efficiency of those factors in real life or practical field.

Maslow’s theory of need, developed in 1970 that depicts the need of the hierarchy of needs including physiological, security, social, esteem and self-actualization etc. of an employee can also affect the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of that employee. According to Maslow’s theory if an employee fulfils his or her needs of hierarchy, then he or she is satisfied with the job and vice-versa (Maslow, 1970). Does the Maslow’s theory of need is applicable within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees, will be important concern for the researcher in this research project.

  • Self-actualization – morality, creativity, problem solving, etc.
  • Esteem – includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect, etc.
  • Belongingness – includes love, friendship, intimacy, family, etc.
  • Safety – includes security of environment, employment, resources, health, property, etc.
  • Physiological – includes air, food, water, sex, sleep, other factors towards homeostasis, etc.

Evans (1998) mentions that factors such as low salaries and low status causes job dissatisfaction within employees’ profession. There are several factors that affect the individual needs, values and expectations within the organization can be used to evaluate the level of satisfaction of that employee (Sempane et al., 2002). What is the current salary and status structure within the case studied organization and how this structure is affecting the level of job satisfaction and thus performance of the employees will be analysed and evaluated by the researcher.

In 1959, Hertzberg has developed theory of motivation-hygiene. According to Hertzberg (Schultz et al., 2003) employees who are satisfied at work attribute their satisfaction to internal factors (e.g. responsibility, recognition, promotion and achievement etc.), while dissatisfied employees ascribe their behaviour to external factors (e.g. supervision, salary, work environment and relations with other employees etc). Based on the Herzberg’s theory it is clear that workers are most satisfied and most productive when their jobs are rich in the motivator factor. When the work is interesting, he suggests can be accomplished by the job enrichment. So, job enrichment is become another factors that have influences on the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction and thus on the work performance of the employees within an organization.

Hackman and Oldham’s (1976) model of job enrichment propose that jobs can be made more motivating by increasing the following: skill variety (the number of different skills required by the job), task identity (the degree to which the job produces something meaningful), task significance (the importance of the work), autonomy (the degree to which the individual has freedom in deciding how to perform the job), and feedback (the degree to which the individual obtains ongoing. There will be great efforts by the researcher to investigate and evaluate the existing motivational techniques applied and implemented by the managers and/or leaders as well as what is the model of job design and job enrichment within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

According to Valencia (2011), motivation by the leaders and/or managers plays crucial role to influence the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction that ultimately affect the level of work performance by the employees within an organization. She has mentioned that there are several ways in which job can be design and enrich within the organization to enhance employees’ satisfaction and thus work performance of them and these include- a. Combining tasks that influences skills variety and task identity; b. Forming natural work units that enhances task identity and task significance; c. Establishing client relationships that increases skill variety, autonomy and feedback; d. Vertical loading where the worker has more authority, responsibility and control over the work and that increases autonomy, skills variety, task identity and task significance etc.; and e. Opening feedback channels that increases feedback. So, it is clear that if the employees are motivated by their managers and/or leaders in their work place, in most cases they become satisfied with their jobs and it helps to improve the efficiency and productivity of those employees within the organization. Is there any implementation of particular way or combination of way as mentioned by Valencia (2011) within the case studied organization for the purpose of job design and job enrich that affects the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees will be identified and discussed by the researcher.

Tsai, et al. (2010) has identified another dimension regarding the factors that influences job satisfaction and dissatisfaction and thus affects the work performance of the employees within an organization. They have found that organizational commitment is vital for the job satisfaction as well as work performance of the employees within an organization, particularly in hospitality industry. According to them employees’ job satisfaction enhances job performance only through organizational commitment. They also mentioned that internal marketing, empowerment and leadership also positively influence job satisfaction. While Heskett et al. (1994) proposed the framework of service profit chain in relation to job satisfaction and job performance within the hospitality industry. In the service profit chain, there are critical linkages among internal service quality, employee satisfaction/productivity, the value of services provided to the customers, customers satisfaction and company’s profits. Thus, they opined that internal service quality can enhance employee satisfaction, which will enhance employee productivity and further result in external service value and enhanced customers’ satisfaction.

Based on previous research works completed by several researchers such as Babin and Boles, 1998; Bernhardt et al. 2000; Scotter, 2003; Koys, 2003 and Testa, 2001 etc. have validated that employees’ job satisfaction positively influences job performance and organizational commitment within an organization. What are the organizational commitments and what is the service chain model within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK and how these are affecting the job satisfaction and work performance will be explored and analysed by the researcher. According to Chen and Silverthorne (2005), job stress is a critical issue in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of employees within an organization. For example, Jamal (1990) and Jex (1998) have stated that reducing employees’ job stress could enhance employees’ job satisfaction and job performance.  Moreover, Williams and Cooper (2000) and Ouyang (2009) indicated that proper job stress would enhance employees’ job performance.

The researcher will try to find out the real conditions regarding the internal marketing, leadership, empowerment and job stress within the case studied organization for the purpose of investigating and analysing the effect of job satisfaction on the employees’ work performance. Hodgetts (1991) has identified some organizational factors that influence job satisfaction and/or job dissatisfaction. These include-

  • Pay and benefits: The importance of equitable reward is a factor to consider here. One could add fair promotion policies and practices to fair pay (Witt and Nye, 1992).
  • Promotion: The level of satisfaction will depend on the acceptability of the system in operation, be it a system based on merit, or seniority, or whatever combination of the two (Hodgetts, 1991).
  • Job itself: This would embrace (a) Skills variety- the extent to which the job allows a worker to use a number of different skills and abilities in executing his or her duties (Glisson and Durick, 1988); (b) interest and challenge derived in the job, particular moderate challenge (Katzell, et al. 1992); and (c) lack of role ambiguity- how clearly the individuals understand the job (Glisson and Durick, 1988).
  • Leadership: There has been endorsement of people-centred or participative leadership as a determinant of job satisfaction (Miller and Monge, 1986).
  • Work group: It would appear that good intra-group working and supportive colleagues have value in not permitting job dissatisfaction to surface, rather than in promoting job satisfaction (Hodgetts, 1991).
  • Working conditions: Where working conditions are good, comfortable, and safe, the setting appears to be appropriate for reasonable job satisfaction and the situation with respect to job satisfaction would be bleaker if working conditions were poor (Hodgetts, 1991).

It seems to be a common assumption that employees, who are happy with their job, should also be more productive at work (Spector, 1997). It has been hypothesized that if above average performance is rewarded on the job, and then the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance would be higher (Jacobs and Solomon, 1977). There will be great effort by the researcher to identify and evaluate any one of the above mentioned organizational factors are applicable within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK in relation to the effect of job satisfaction on employee’s work performance.  

ii. How to measure the level of job satisfaction

The researcher thinks that to measure the level of job satisfaction, it is require to provide some appropriate definitions of job satisfaction because it is very complex issue to measure the level of job satisfaction within an organization. As cited by Rashid (1983) shows that there is no simple definition of the job satisfaction because it means different things to different people. He described that job satisfaction varies in fact according to what a person seeks in a job, how he or she ranks the items sought in order to priority, and how well the job permits the person to achieve the various personal goals. Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector, 1997).

According to McKenna (2000), the most frequently adopted approach to measuring job satisfaction involves the use of rating scales that are standard instrument that are designated to provide feedback on specific examples of employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He also mentioned that there are other techniques for measuring job satisfaction such as critical incidents and interviews. The technique in which the employees are requested to focus on some situation or incident that is related to job satisfaction is known as critical incident technique where the employees experience greater freedom to express themselves, unlike the situation with rating scales. Another technique interview that is regarded as more open-ended approach than critical incidents and where interviews offer interviewee wider scope in terms of response (McKenna, 2000 p.280). Moreover, Archnahr, et al., (2006) have stated that to measure level of job satisfaction is very subjective approach. The psychometric tools are the most effective and efficient to measure level of job satisfaction. Other tools that can be used to measure job satisfaction include- global measure that measures the overall satisfaction of the job; facet measure where satisfaction is measured on each aspect of the job.

 According to Stanton et al. (2001), job description index (JDI) items is one the best methods that can be used to measure level of job satisfaction of the employees within the organization. This JDI items include- working environment, payment, promotion, supervision and relations with co-workers etc. However, other researchers have used JDI in relation to measure level of job satisfaction. For instance, the JDI is an instrument that is used to assess job satisfaction more than any other inventory (Kinicki, 2002). Balzer et al. (1997) describes the purpose of the JDI as well as the validity and reliability conducted. The basis for the Job Descriptive Index is that job satisfaction is important for three different reasons: humanitarian concerns, economic concerns, and theoretical concerns.

  • Humanitarian concerns: Humanitarian concerns are of interest because employers want people to be satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction has been related to various factors, like physical and mental health, as well as overall life satisfaction, so it is important for people to be satisfied at work (Balzer et al., 1997).
  • Economic concerns: Economic concerns are of interest to employers because they want to get the most from their employees. If happier employees lead to increased productivity, then it is worth the employer’s time to make the employees satisfied. Job satisfaction can also lead to various factors like decreased absenteeism, reduced turnover, and fewer on the job injuries (Balzer et al., 1997).
  • Theoretical concerns: Theoretical concerns are of interest because many people view satisfaction as the cause of work-related behaviours, such as maintaining good working relationships, coming to work, and doing the job well (Balzer et al., 1997).

Other researchers (e.g. MacDonald, 1996; O’Toole, 1980) argue in favour of the control of job satisfaction by factors intrinsic to the workers. Their arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile. Several authors and researcher have revealed that job satisfaction is an important aspect within the organizational performance, particularly in the hospitality and hotel industry as the business is concern with services through the employees. For example, according to Nguyen, et al. (2003), job satisfaction is an issue of substantial important both for employers and employees. They suggest that employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. However, employees should also ‘be happy in their work, given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working lives’. Thus, the researcher will adopt and implement some common and appropriate tools and techniques for the purpose of measuring level of job satisfaction in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance at the Grange Hotels, UK.

iii. How to measure the work performance

Work performance measurement is an integral and crucial part within the organization. If the organization does not establish proper and appropriate performance measurement system, they cannot measure and evaluate the organizational performance itself. So, it is vital to measure work performance of employees by adopting and implementing some tools and techniques through setting some criteria.

For example, Hakala (2008) has proposed following ways to measure employee performance (work performance)-

  • Quantity: The number of units produced, processed or sold is a good objective indicator of performance (Hakala, 2008).
  • Quality: An organization can measure work of the employees through measuring the quality of the person in terms of efficiency and productivity.
  • Timeliness: The time required to complete a particular task can be regard as measuring tool of work performance of that employee within the organization (Hakala, 2008).
  • Absenteeism: The level absenteeism can be used to measure work performance of an employee (Hakala, 2008).
  • Creativity: Creativity can be used as measuring work performance but it is very difficult to measure performance based on creativity (Hakala, 2008).
  • Personal Appearance/Grooming: Most people know how to dress for work, but in many organizations, there is at least one employee who needs to be told (Hakala, 2008).
  • Management appraisal system: To measure the performance of the employee, there can be appraisal system by the management of the organization (Hakala, 2008).
  • Personal appraisal system: To measure how the person is performing in his or her job place, can be measured by self-appraisal system (Hakala, 2008). 
  • Peer appraisal system: The colleagues and other employees can help to measure the efficiency and productivity of an employee within an organization (Hakala, 2008).
  • Assess by external body: There can be use of external body to measure the work performance within an organization (Hakala, 2008). 

The measurement of efficiency and productivity regard as the vital tools and techniques for the purpose of measurement of work performance (Gillikin, 2011). Efficiency is the ratio of an employee’s actual time to perform a particular task against the theoretical time needed to complete it (Gillikin, 2011). He also mentioned that a time study approach can be used to measure the efficiency of an employee. Productivity is simply the amount of units of a product or service that an employee handles in a defined time frame (Gillikin, 2011). He also mentioned that the measure of employee work output can be used to measure the productivity that employee. Abilla (2007) has developed equations that can be used to measure efficiency and productivity of employees within the organization.

He has developed following equation for the purpose of measuring worker efficiency- Efficiency = [100% * (actual output/standard output)].

He has developed following equation for the purpose of measuring worker productivity- Productivity = Outputs/ Inputs.

 Kaplan and Norton (1996) have proposed a balanced scorecard or a balanced set of measures in relation to measure work performance within an organization, particularly by the top managers of the organization. They mentioned that there are major four perspectives that are important for the measuring of work performance and these include- the customer’s perspective; the internal business perspective; the innovation and learning perspective; and the financial perspective. The United States Office of Personnel Management (2001) has proposed that there are 5 key components in relation to performance measurement that include- planning, monitoring, developing, rating and rewarding etc.

iv. Relationship between job satisfaction and work performance

This is an important area of research because job satisfaction is correlated to enhanced job performance, positive work values, high levels of employee motivation, and lower rates of absenteeism, turnover and burnout (Begley and Czajka, 1993; and Tharenou, 1993). Several authors have described that there is close and vital relations with the job satisfaction and work performance within an organization. The most prominent researchers and authors who have worked on it include- Judge et al. (2001); Schwab and Cummings (1970); Locke (1976); and Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) and all them have agreed that the job satisfaction can influence work performance of the employees within an organization. There are also stronger relationships depending on specific circumstances such as mood and employee level within the company (Morrison, 1997). Organ (1988) also found that the job performance and job satisfaction relationship follows the social exchange theory; employees’ performance is giving back to the organization from which they get their satisfaction.

Judge et al. (2001) argued that there are seven different models that can be used to describe the job satisfaction and job performance relationship. Some of these models view the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance to be unidirectional, that either job satisfaction causes job performance or vice versa. Another model stated that the relationship is a reciprocal one; this has been supported by the research of Wanous (1974). The underlying theory of this reciprocal model is that if the satisfaction is extrinsic, then satisfaction leads to performance, but if the satisfaction is intrinsic, then the performance leads to satisfaction. Other models suggest there is either an outside factor that causes a seemingly relationship between the factors or that there is no relationship at all, however, neither of these models have much research. George and Brief (1996) and Isen and Baron (1991) both founded that job satisfaction can lead better work performance of the employees within an organization. Bishay (1996) postulates that if employees are satisfied with their work they will show greater commitment and thus more better performances within the organization. Conversely, dissatisfied workers with negative attitudes will ultimately leave the organisation. The researcher will try to find the application and implementation any models for the purpose of identifying relationships of job satisfaction with work performance within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

v. Role of job satisfaction on work performance

According to Yousef (2000), job satisfaction and organizational performance is closely related because if the employees are satisfied then there will be no tardiness, absenteeism and turnover that will improve the work performance and organizational productivity. Moreover, factors that are associated with job satisfaction linked to increase productivity and organizational effectiveness that affect the work performance of the employees (Buitendach and de Witte, 2005). According to Nimalathasan (2010), the employees who are satisfied with their job can create more effort that will create better organizational performances as well as he or she can provide better performance from him or her. He also described that job satisfaction has two types of role- from organizational perspective and employees’ perspective. The organization has to ensure job satisfaction to achieve organizational goals and objectives. On the other hand, job satisfaction can provides mental refreshment, good relations with co-workers, good relations with supervisor etc. to the employees within the organization.

Job satisfaction has both positive and negative consequences within the organization. For instance, Hodgetts (1991) has described that the outcomes or consequences of job satisfaction in relation to performance, employee turnover and absenteeism.

  • Performance: The employees who are satisfied with the job they do better work than the employees who are not satisfied with their job, a research study carried out by (Ostroff, 1992). As an example (West, 1998) has mentioned in UK job satisfaction has great influence on the work performance of the employees within an organization, such as in retail organization.
  • Employee turnover: Job satisfaction is closely related with employee turnover that can be  used to measure the level of efficiency and productivity of the employees and thus the work performance of those employees and Lee and Mowday (1987) stated that the employee who is satisfied he or she wants to stay within the organization compare to employee who is not satisfied with the job.
  • Absenteeism: There is said to be an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and level of absenteeism- that is, when job satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high (Steel and Rentsch, 1995). There is opposite argument as well in respect to job satisfaction and level of absenteeism, such as Clegg (1983) has mentioned that there is no guarantee in low levels of absenteeism despite of having high levels of job satisfaction.

Heskett et al. 1997 and Weaver, 1994 have stated that the people who are satisified with the job, they are very productive than those are not satisfied with the job within an organization.  According to Reichheld (1996), there are mainly three features by which an organization can explore the role of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees that include- the feel proud of their jobs, they find very much interests and meanings by doing jobs and after receiving recognition from the colleagues and/or other employees within the organization. All of the features can be termed as to assess the roles of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees within an organization. Moreover, some other prominent researchers have mentioned that job satisfaction has role to work performance in several ways. For instance, satisfied employees provide a higher level of external service quality, the service experience that customers receive and evaluate, which leads to increased customer satisfaction, stated by Heskett et al. 1997 and Spinelli and Canavos, 2000.

Job satisfaction has one most crucial role within the organization in relation to human resource management (HRM). The issue of turnover is an important concern for the purpose of human resources management. Several authors have revealed that there is closely a relationship with the job satisfaction and turnover that affect human resources management and thus work performance of the employees within an organization. As an example, Hackman and Oldham (1975) have described that job satisfaction is generally believed a higher job satisfaction is associated with increased productivity, lower absenteeism, and lower employee turnover. Glance et al. (1997) described that employee turnover is positively related with the productivity of the employee. Amah (2009) noted that employee turnover can be reduced through increasing job satisfaction. The satisfied employees are willing to involve in more volunteering within the organization that increase more productivity of them and thus reduce turnover of them.

According to Mudor and Tooksoon (2011), HRM practices in specific internal fit as an ideal set of practices which identify three variables; supervision, job training, and pay practices believed to influence job satisfaction and toward turnover of the employees, as some of the practices of high the performance working system practices by previous HRM researchers such as Bradley et al. (2004). From the review, it is clear that the job satisfaction has impact on the several issues and concepts such as organizational performance, employee performance, turnover and absenteeism, employee productivity, service quality of employees and human resources management etc. So, there should be initiatives by the researcher to explore and evaluate about the impact of job satisfaction on the above mentioned issues and concepts.

Theoretical framework of references

During the critical review of the literature, the researcher has identified several issues and concepts that are closely related with the job satisfaction and work performance of employees within an organization, particularly in hospitality industry (Hotels). The theoretical framework of references can be represent as follows-

Table: 2.2. Theoretical framework of references with key themes and year of publication
Name of author(s) Main focus in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of employee within an organization Year of publication
Pinks et al. Factors that influence job satisfaction 2006
Maslow Theory of Hierarchy of Needs that leads to job satisfaction 1970
Evans Organizational and personal factors in relation to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction 1998
Hertzberg Theory of Motivation-Hygiene factors in relation to job satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction 1959
Hackman and Oldham’s Job enrichment and job satisfaction and job satisfaction 1976
Valencia Motivation by leaders and/or managers in respect to job satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction 2011
Tsai et al. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and work performance 2010
Heskett et al. Service profit chain in relation to job satisfaction and job performance 1994
Chen and Silverthorne Job stress in relation to satisfaction and work performance of employees

2005Tsai et al.Internal marketing, leadership, empowerment and job stress etc. are possible factors of employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment and work performance

2010HodgettsOrganizational factors that influence job satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction1991RashidDefinition of job satisfaction1983

McKennaApproaches such as rating scales, critical incidents, interviews etc. to measure job satisfaction2000ArchnahrMeasuring job satisfaction is subjective approach and there are some tools- psychometric tools, global measure and facet measure etc.2006LuthanThree important dimensions to job satisfaction1998Nguyen et al.Importance of job satisfaction both for employers and employees2003HakalaDifferent ways to measure employee performance2008GillikinEfficiency and productivity in relation to measure work performance2011Kaplan and NortonA balanced scorecard in relation to measure work performance within an organization1996YousefJob satisfaction and organizational performance2000NimalathasanRole of job satisfaction both from organizational and employees’ perspective2010

Source: Author’s analysis based on critical review of literature

Conclusion on critical review of literature

According to Saunders et al. (2009), critical review of literature explores and identifies some key themes and issues relevant to the research topic. This research project is based on the effect of job satisfaction and work performance of employees within an organization such as Grange Hotels, UK. The key issues and concepts that have been explored and identified from the critical review of literature in accordance with research aims and objectives can be shown as follows-

  1. There are several factors that influences the job satisfaction and these include- organizational factors, e.g. organizational commitment, structure of wages and salary, human resource management policies and regulations, job design and description etc. and employees’ personal factors- attitudes towards job, self-motivation, age, wages and salaries according to level of experiences, willingness and innovative in working approach etc.
  2. The theory of hierarchy of needs plays significant role to increase job satisfaction and thus increase work productivity and performance.
  3. The theory of motivation-hygiene factors has great influence on the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization.
  4. There are several approaches such as rating scales, global measures, facet measure, interviews, psychometric tools, balanced scorecard etc. to measure the level of job satisfaction.
  5. The measure of efficiency and productivity is vital for the purpose of measuring job performance of employees within an organization.
  6. The job satisfaction plays great role within the organization in relation to improve and increase the job performance of the employees, for example, in respect to organizational perspective including more customer satisfaction and loyalty to organization and in respect to employee perspective including efficient and productive outputs in relation to service.

Limitation on critical review of literature

There may have some lacking with the collection of data and information in relation to research aims and objectives from the critical review of literature for several reasons. For example, time constraints are the most vital limiting factor that affects the data and information from the literature review. The lack of available financial resources is also another limiting factor that affects the review of literature activities in relation to collect and gather data and information in relation to research aims and objectives. Thus, the researcher would like to mention that due to shortage of time and less financial resources can affect the collection and gathering of data and information from the critical review of literature.  

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

Introduction

The discussion of research methodology is an important part within the research project, because it has great influences on the overall research activities and thus to make good piece of research work with valid conclusion and recommendation in accordance with research aims, objectives and research questions. For example, Kothari (2004 p.05-06) has described that depending on the type of research, the research methodology helps the researcher to identify and explore key tools and techniques for the purpose of collecting different data and information. Thus, whatever the research type, there should be appropriate discussion about the research methodology to complete the research work and thus to make standard research report through collecting and gathering primary, secondary and/or tertiary data and information from various sources. Thus, it can say that research methodology is vital to set out appropriate ways and guidance by which the research will be complete in a most effectively and efficiently.

In this chapter, there have been discussed and explained some major issues and concepts within the research methodology. These include- research philosophy, research approach, data collection methods, alternative research methods, data analysis tools and techniques, consideration of ethical issues in research methods, advantages of used research methods, limitations associated with used research methods and how to minimize those limitations, and overall reflection on the research methodology etc. Thus, the author would like to mention that this chapter has covered all of the relevant issues and concepts within the research methodology in relation to this research project- an investigation and analysis of the

Research philosophy

The consideration of research philosophy is important and vital part within the research project in relation to make good piece of research report (Saunders et al. 2009). This research project is based on the cause-effect relationships, so the researcher believes that positivism research philosophy was most appropriate and relevant in relation to this research project. The reasons were as follows-

  • To identify the real scenarios from the case studied organization as either qualitative or quantitative or both; and
  • To enable and assist to evaluate different methodologies and methods and to avoid inappropriate use and unnecessary work by identifying the limitations of the particular approaches at an early stage.

Research approach

According to Tobin (2006), there are several elements on the research that are based either on the empirical or non-empirical or combination of the two research approach. In relation to empirical research approach, there are following sub research approach-

  • Qualitative vs quantitative research approach;
  • Deductive vs inductive research approach; and
  • Subjective vs objective research approach (Tobin, 2006)

Among those research approaches, deductive vs inductive research approach is mostly used in the business and management research, particularly in the field of cause-and-effect relationships research. So, it is clear that either deductive or inductive will be applicable to complete research work through using appropriate research methods to collect primary and secondary data and information from several sources. The reasons for using inductive research approach were as follows-

  • To develop conceptual and theoretical structure and to test by empirical observation in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the Grange Hotels, UK; and
  • To establish a particular thing from the general points regarding the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

Data collection methods

Data collection both primary and secondary is an important part of the research project. If the researcher does not collect and gather appropriate and relevant data, he or she cannot make good piece of research report in accordance with research aims, objectives and questions. In this case, the researcher needs to consider some things within the data collection. The researcher has covered all of the relevant issues in the data collection methods within this chapter of research methodology.

i. Questionnaire design: The researcher has conducted semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey for the purpose of collecting primary data and document review & analysis for the purpose of collecting secondary data from the case studied organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. All of the research questions have been designated in such as way that reflected the overall research aims, objectives and research questions. For example, the interview questions were designated with both open-ended and closed-ended, mostly using Likert scale questions. The survey questions has been designated through focusing research aims, objectives and research questions by putting both open-ended and closed-ended questions, mostly using Likert scale. The researcher believes that the questionnaire design was perfect and appropriate in relation to collect and gathers real data and information about the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

ii. Sample size and sampling techniques: To determine sample size is an important concern for the researcher to collect relevant data from the right people or respondents within the case studied organization. In case study, research approach, there may require small sample of the respondents because of particular research area. In relation to semi-structured interviews, there were 3 interviewees to collect the real data and information about the case studied organization. There were 20 employees questionnaire survey out off 35 full-time and part-time employees within the Holborn branch to collect primary data from them about the job satisfaction and work performance within the organization, Grange Hotels, UK. Simple random sampling technique has been used both in semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey for the purpose of collecting primary data in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

iii. Primary data collection: The researcher has collected primary data through conducting semi-structured interviews of the management personnel and by carrying put questionnaire survey of the general employees of the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. The researcher thought that these two methods were appropriate and effective collect relevant data in accordance with job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

iv. Secondary data collection: In case study research strategy, document review & analysis is perfect for the purpose of collecting secondary data in respect to research aims, objectives and research questions (Myers, 2007). The researcher has used this method to collect secondary data in accordance with job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

v. Pilot study and pilot testing: According to Maxwell (2005), pilot study and testing helps a student to design the dissertation research thorough improving skills and competencies in conducting interviews, survey and to improve knowledge and understanding about the research topic. In addition, Saunders et al. (2009) have stated that the pilot study and testing helps the student to revise and refinement of the research questions. The researcher has conducted pilot study and testing with peers for the purpose of getting maximum response from the respondents and interview personnel within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. After completing pilot study and testing, the researcher did some modifications within the research questions that helped her to collect more appropriate and relevant data and information during the final semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey. Thus, the researcher would like to mention that the pilot study and testing helped her to collect appropriate data and information through conducting and carrying out semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey in most effective and efficient ways within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

vi. Validity, reliability and generalisability: Muijs (2011) has stated that validity, reliability and generalisability are the three key concepts in quantitative research methods to measure something within the research. This research project is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employees’ work performance, so there should be consideration of validity, reliability and generalisability within the research methodology.

Validity: According to Muijs (2011), validity determines the answer what the researcher wants to measure. He mentioned that there are mainly three types of validity such as content validity, criterion validity and construct validity. The researcher has ensured the validity of the research findings through presenting real data and information about the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. The research report was able to satisfy to the management personnel of the case studied organization by providing cost-effective and constructive conclusions and recommendations in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization.

Reliability: Another most concern for the researcher within the research methodology is the reliability of the research itself and the research findings (Babbie, 2010). He also described that the researcher may face several problems within the research project in terms of reliability of data collection and research report. In this research project, the researcher has conducted pilot study and then final study in relation to semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey. Then the researcher has carried out document review & analysis of the case studied organization for the purpose of validating data and information collected and gathered from the management personnel and general employees of the case studied organization. So, the researcher would like to opine that the real carrying out of questionnaire survey, conducting of semi-structured interviews and then document review & analysis determines the reliability of the research findings and thus the research itself.

Generalisability: The third important aspect within the research methodology is the generalisability of the research findings and the overall research works. Veal (2006) has defined the generalisability as to the probability that the results of the research findings apply to other subjects, other groups, and other conditions. This research project is based on the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, so the research findings are easily applicable to other organization. For example, during the review of literature, the researcher had identified that motivation by managers and/or leaders is an important to ensure job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees. This concept of motivation is applicable within hospitality as well as other organization. Like this, the primary data also reflect the general aspects regarding job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Thus, the researcher would like to say that the research findings are applicable to other organization in relation job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization.

vii. Research analysis procedure

This research project is based on the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Thus, the research questions, both semi-structured and survey questionnaire based on the evidence and empirical knowledge existing in the literature and case studied organization. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been collected and gathered during the review of literature and conducting interviews and questionnaire survey within the case studied organization. The researcher has analysed both qualitative and quantitative data by using relevant tools and theories to make valid conclusions and recommendations in accordance with the investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

Alternative research methods

The researcher has used three most common and effective research methods that include- semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and document review & analysis within the case studied organization. There may use of some alternative research methods to investigate and analyse job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization.  These include- field experiment, observation, and other related research methods. These research methods are time consuming and cost-extensive as well. The author want to say that all the used research methods were relevant and appropriate to collect and gather all required data and information in relation to research aims, objectives and research questions.

Data analysis tools and techniques

The researcher has collected and gathered both primary and secondary data that came both in the form of qualitative and quantitative through conducting semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and document review & analysis. The qualitative data have been analysed through transcribing the interview results that derived from the 3 management personnel and results obtained from document review & analysis of the cases studied organization. The quantitative data have been analysed through using tables, graphs, charts, and other related tools and techniques. The chapter 4 has been designated to present analysed data both of qualitative and quantitative data.

Consideration of ethical issues

The consideration of some ethical issues is vital for the completion of research project as well as to make good piece of research report. For instance, Saunders et al. (2009) have described that to ensure the validity, reliability and quality of the research report, the researcher must follow and maintain relevant ethical issues during the completion of research project. The researcher has to follow and maintain some relevant ethical issues to ensure access to the case studied organization as well as maintain honesty and integrity during the execution of research project. The most common ethical issues that should be followed and maintained by the researcher include- honesty, integrity, acknowledgment, confidentiality, objectivity, fairness, etc.  The researcher has acknowledged all previous works that have been used in this research report. The researcher has ensured proper access to the case studied organization through the sending letter of informed consent. In similar ways, she has followed and maintained some relevant ethical issues such as confidentiality, privacy, honesty, integrity and fairness etc. during the collection of primary and secondary data and information from the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

Advantages of used research methods

The advantages of the used research methods can be shown as follows-

Table: 3.1. Relevant advantages of used research methods, such as semi-structured interview, questionnaire survey and document review & analysis

Name of research method

Relevant advantages to this research project

Semi-structured interview To collect real scenario about the organizational job satisfaction and work performance of the employees from the management personnel of the case studied organization; and

To collect data and information about some organizational aspects such as structure & culture, leadership, salary & work structure, organizational commitment etc. from the management personnel of the case studied organization.Questionnaire surveyTo collect data about the perception of the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees from the general employees within the case studied organization; and

To collect data on level of job satisfaction and how this affect does the performance of the general employees within the case studied organization.Document review & analysis To compare the data and information that derived from the interviews and surveys; and

To verify and evaluate the current situation and scenario about the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within the case studied organization.

Source: Author’s analysis based on used research methods

Self-reflection on used research methods

This research project is based on the case study approach in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Based on the research methods, the researcher has collected and gathered most relevant and appropriate data and information to prepare standard research report with valid conclusions and recommendations. Thus, the researcher would like to opine that she was satisfied with the collection and gathering of data and information in relation to investigate and analyse the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

Chapter summary

In conclusion, the researcher would like to mention that the chapter 3: research methodology has covered and discussed all relevant issues and concepts within the execution of research project and thus to make good research report with valid conclusions and recommendations both to academic and organizational perspective in relation to investigation and analysis of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

Chapter 4: Research Findings and Analysis

Introduction

Research findings and their analysis is one the most important chapter within the research report. For example, Saunders et al. (2009) have described that the research findings and analysis plays crucial role to represent data, either primary or secondary or both data that was collected and gathered by the researcher for the purpose of making good research report. In this chapter, the researchers has presented primary research findings in such way that was very appropriate to cover all of the issues and concepts in relation to research findings and analysis. Thus, the researcher would like to mention that this chapter will be able to represent both primary and secondary data and information that was collected and gathered in accordance with research aims, objectives and research questions etc. in relation to an investigation and evaluation of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance, case study of Grange Hotels, Holborn branch, UK.

Primary data and their analysis

The researcher has conducted only 3 interviews with the management personnel, such as with Branch Manager, General Manager and Assistant Manager. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 20 employees out off 35 full-time and part-time employees within the Holborn branch of the Grange Hotels, UK.

The presentation and analysis of the primary data has been divided into two parts- Part 1: Semi-structured interview results and their analysis; and Part 2: Questionnaire survey results and their analysis.

Part 1: Semi-structured interview results and their analysis

The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3 management personnel, such as Branch Manager, General Manager and Assistant Manager by using same interview questions to get their own views and perceptions about the particular issue and matter in relation to research topic- the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within the organization, case study of Grange Hotels, Holborn Branch, UK. There were nearly 15-18 questions within the interview questionnaire that were based on the issues arrived during the critical review of literature as well as on the research aims and objectives and the duration of each interview was nearly 25-30 minutes.

The findings from the semi-structured interviews can be represent and analysis in following ways-

What are the major issues and matters that needs to consider by the organization in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees [Interview Q-06]

Based on the interview results, the author would like to opine that organizational structure, organizational culture, style & approach of leadership, human resources management policies & regulations, nature of job design & job description etc. are vital issue and matter that should consider by the organization in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization, like Grange Hotels, UK.

 What are the major techniques to motivate employees that lead to job satisfaction and thus better work performance of the employees [Interview Q-07]

Thus, the author would like to mention that to motivate employees that can lead to the job satisfaction and thus better work performance within an organization, following major techniques can be applied and implemented-

  • Financial reward system;
  • Non-financial reward system;
  • Empowerment and power delegation to employees; and
  • Involvement of employees in decision making process, in most cases within the organization.

How the organization is measuring work performance of employees of the Grange Hotels, UK? [Interview Q-09]

All of the interviewee has agreed that there is no particular system for the purpose of measuring work performance of the employees within the Grange Hotels, UK. But they have mentioned that in some cases, the organization is using following tools and techniques to measure the work performance of the employees-

  • Application of balanced scorecard;
  • Conducting survey on employee performance;
  • Carry out customer survey on their satisfaction on employee performance; and
  • Conducting interviews with employees etc.

As the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK in most cases, is not applying or implementing tools and techniques to measure the work performance of the employees, so the author would like to say that the organization having some problem in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees.

Do you think motivation by leaders and/or managers plays important and crucial role to increase job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK? [Interview Q-11]

The researcher would like to mention that the General and Assistant Manager are right, because they have been working within the general employees all the time and they feels that leader and/or manager has vital role to motivate the employees that can increase job satisfaction and thus better work performance of them within the organization, like Grange Hotels, UK.

Do you think better organizational structure and culture plays important and crucial role to increase job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK? [Interview Q-12]

The researcher has find that all interviewees (3 people) are agreed and strongly agreed with the role of better organizational structure and culture to increase job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Thus, the researcher would like to opine that the management personnel are agreed with the role of better organizational structure and culture for the purpose of ensuring better job design, job description and job enrichment that will increase job satisfaction and thus ultimately the work performance of the employees within the organization, like Grange Hotels, UK.

Please provide some recommendations on how the organization (Grange Hotels, UK) can improve job satisfaction that lead to increased and enhanced work performance of the employees? [Interview Q-17]

The interview results derived from the all interviewees (3 people) in relation to recommendations on how the organization can improve job satisfaction that will lead better work performance of the employees can be represent as follows-

  • The organization should establish both financial and non-financial reward systems to increase job satisfaction and thus improve work performance of the employees;
  • The organization should provide some incentives to the employees that can increase job satisfaction and better work performance of them within the organization;
  • There should be system of celebrating both short-term and long-term achievements in together within the organization;
  • There should be appropriate empowerment and power delegation to employees as well as involve them in decision making process within the organization;
  • The organization should establish better human resources management policies and regulations, for example, recruiting self-motivated and dedicated people for the purpose of creating better managing of employees within the organization;
  • The organization should conduct interviews and carry out survey on the employee’s performance measurement and thus provide proper guidance and support to improve efficiency and productivity of them within the organization; and
  • The organization should collect feedback and suggestions from the customers in relation to assess and evaluate their satisfaction on employees’ performance.

Part 2: Questionnaire survey results and their analysis

The researcher has carried out 20 questionnaire survey among the 35 employees both full-time and part-time within the Grange Hotels, Holborn Branch, UK. There were 18-20 questions within the survey and the same questionnaire has been used to collect primary data from the general employees within the case studied organization in relation to investigate and evaluate the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance. The researcher believed that she was able to collect all relevant data from the 20 respondents as all the employees were very co-operative and they took part through voluntarily in the questionnaire survey.

The questionnaire survey results and their analysis can be represent as follows-

What are the main factors and aspects that are favourable for job satisfaction within the Hotel? [Survey Q-07]

The researcher, thus, would like to opine that there should be proper wages and/or salaries and working environment for the general employees as main factor in relation to increase job satisfaction, along with other things such as co-operation & support, better organizational structure & culture, job design & job description within the organization.

How do you feel about the relationships with other people at work within the Grange Hotels, UK? [Survey Q-09]

The survey results showed that the majority (40%) of the general employees are satisfied in some cases with the relationships with other employee within the organization. The survey results depicts that the majority of the general employees are satisfied, either in some cases or overall satisfied with the relationships with other employees within the organization. Thus, it can be said that there is greater chance to increase job satisfactions and thus improve work performance of the employees within the case studied organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

How do you feel about the actual job itself within the Grange Hotels, UK? [Survey Q-10]

The job itself plays significant role to determine the job satisfaction and thus work performance of the general employees within an organization. The survey results represent that half of the respondents (50%) people are satisfied in some cases, where 20% people are overall satisfied with the job itself within the Grange Hotels, UK. From the questionnaire survey results, in relation to feelings about the actual job itself among the general employees within the case studied organization shows that 50% of the people are satisfied in some cases, followed by 20% with overall satisfaction. On the other hand, 15% people have mentioned that they are dissatisfied in some cases with the actual job itself. So, it can be said that the job itself has influence on the job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

How do you feel about the current career opportunities within the Grange Hotels, UK? [Survey Q-11]

From the results, it can be concluded that the general employees are not satisfied at all with the career opportunities within the organization. For example, in combination of very much dissatisfaction, dissatisfaction, dissatisfaction in some cases and no comments (10% + 45% + 5% + 30% = 90%), represent that about 90% people are not satisfied with the career opportunities within the organization and remaining 10% people are satisfied in some cases with the career opportunities within the organization. Thus, it is clear that all general employees are not satisfied with job satisfaction in relation to career opportunities within the organization. 

How do you feel about level of salary relative to your experience within the Grange Hotels, UK? [Survey Q-12]

From the results, it can be said that more than half (55%) people are dissatisfied either in some cases or very much dissatisfied where remain 45% people are satisfied either in overall satisfaction or satisfied in some cases. So, the organization should focus on the salary structure accordion to experience of the employees in order to increase job satisfaction that will lead better work performance of the employees within the organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

How do you feel about the style of supervision by your leaders/managers within the Grange Hotels, UK? [Survey Q-14]

The supervision by the leader and/or manager plays significant role to ensure better job design as well as appropriate support and guidance from them that can increase job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees. The survey results denoted that majority (40%) people are satisfied in some cases with the style of supervision by their leader and/or manager, however, 20% people did not mention either they are satisfied or dissatisfied in the same aspect. From the results, it can be concluded that about 60% people are satisfied either in overall or in some cases, where 20% people are dissatisfied and remain 20% people have no comments on the style of supervision by leader and/or manager to general employees within the organization. Thus, it can say that the existing leading and/or managing style are vital to increase job satisfaction and thus improve work performance of the employees within the organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

How do you feel about the level of participation in decision making within the Grange Hotels, UK? [Survey Q-15]

The involvement and level of employee participation in decision making process within the organization can play vital role to increase job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees. The survey results represent that 30% people are dissatisfied in some cases, 15% people are dissatisfied and 25% people are very much dissatisfied with the level of participation of employees in decision making within the organization. On the other hand, only 15 % people are satisfied in some cases and 10% people are satisfied with the level of participation of the general employees in decision making process. From the results, it is clear that about 70% (25% very much dissatisfied, 15% dissatisfied and 30% dissatisfied in some cases) people are dissatisfied with the current approach in the involvement and participation of general employees in decision making within the organization. On contrast, only 25% (15% satisfied in some cases and 10% satisfied) people are satisfied in the level of participation by general employees in decision making within the organization. Thus, it can be concluded that the organization should focus on the level of participation of general employees in decision making to increase job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within the organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

How the organization (Grange Hotels, UK) can improve practices and structures to improve job satisfaction leading to increased and enhanced work performance by the employees? [Survey Q-18]

Based on the survey results, the author would like to mention following points in relation to improve practices and structures to increase job satisfaction that leading work performance within the organization-

  • To establish better organizational structure and culture;
  • To establish better leadership;
  • To provide financial and non-financial reward system;
  • To create better job design, job description and job enrichment;
  • To create better policies and regulations in relation to manage human resources in most effective and efficient ways; and
  • To provide more space for the employees to complete tasks and activities by ensuring proper empowerment and power delegation system within the organization.

Secondary data and their analysis

The purpose of analysing secondary data is to overcome limitations within the data and information that collected and gathered from the interviews and surveys within the case studied organization. The secondary data has been collected in the following major aspects of the case studied organization that has influence on the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees-

i. Organizational structure: The organizational structure of the Grange Hotels, UK shows that this structure most likely vertical type of structure. There is power hierarchy within the structure where the general employees have limited power to make particular decisions for the organization. From the organizational structure of the case studied organization, it can be said that there was very much power distance among the employees and the management personnel of the organization. There was only limited communication and information share among the employees and the management personnel within the organization. So, it is clear that the employees would not able to provide any self-initiative and creativity within the completion of particular tasks and activities. Thus, the researcher would like to opine that the current organizational structure is not appropriate and effective to increase job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within the organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.

ii. Organizational workplace (diversity and equal opportunities): The available document showed that the case studied organization is committed to ensure better workplace through diversity and equal opportunities. From the document, the researcher has collected and gathered following major issues and aspects that has impact on the job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within the organization-

  1. To employ most talented and skilled employees who will be able to deliver quality service to the customers;
  2. To ensure proper involvement of the employees in the change management of the organization;
  3. To create better working environment for the employees where they can share knowledge and information as necessary to provide quality products and services;
  4. To provide relevant training to the employees to increase skills and competencies; and
  5. To ensure equality of opportunity and fairness in all areas of employment and to valuing the diversity of our colleagues, clients, suppliers and people living within our local communities.

Thus, from the organizational workplace (diversity and opportunities) within the case studied organization, it can be concluded that this aspect is very appropriate and effective to ensure better job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees.

Chapter summary

In this chapter, the researcher has represented the findings from the primary and secondary data and information that collected and gathered based on the research aims and objectives in relation to the investigation and evaluation of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, case study of Grange Hotels, UK. Thus, this chapter covered all things associated and involved in the research findings and analysis, including the introduction, presentation of primary data and its analysis, presentation of secondary data and its analysis and conclusion.

Chapter 5: Conclusions & Recommendations

Introduction

The final chapter of the dissertation is known as conclusions and recommendations chapter where the researcher has to provide key summary of the research findings from different sources- tertiary, secondary and primary source as well as cost-effective and constructive recommendations for the academic and organizational perspective.  There are other major parts within the chapter include- self-reflection on research project, future research initiatives and opportunities, and overall study outline of all chapters (e.g. chapter 1 to chapter 5). Thus, the author would like to mention that this chapter will be able to cover all relevant issues and concepts regarding conclusions and recommendations of the research project in respect to the investigation and evaluation of the effect of job satisfaction of the employee’s work performance within an organization, case study of Grange Hotels, UK.  Finally, the researcher will provide summary of the outline of all the chapters at the end of this chapter.

Key summary of the research findings

The researcher has collected and gathered various data and information from different sources, such as i. critical review of literatures, including books, articles, journals and other relevant sources; ii. Primary data through semi-structured interviews with management personnel of the case studied organization and questionnaire survey with general employees of the case studied organization; and iii. Secondary data from document review and analysis of the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.

The researcher has divided key summary of the research findings into two parts- key summary of the findings from literature review and key summary of the findings from primary and secondary data. The key summary of the research findings can be shown as follows-

A. Key summary of the findings from literature review

The key summary of the findings from the literature review can be represent as follows-

  • Several authors and researchers have identified different factors that can influence job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within an organization. Based on their discussion and explanation, the major factors include- the relationships between supervisor(s) and with other employees; the working environment and its surrounding conditions; the degree of empowerment and power delegation; several needs and demands of the employees; and motivators & hygiene factors and other related factors;
  • As the job satisfaction is a subjective approach within the employees, so most authors and researchers have agreed that there is no particular system to measure level of job satisfaction. However, there is system tools and techniques that can apply within the organization and these include- personal feelings of employee about job and other aspects; the use of rating scales; psychometric tools; job description index; and identification of benefits to employers and employees etc.;
  • To measure the work performance within an organization, the following approach can be adopt and implement- quality and quantity measure; cost-effectiveness; timeliness; creativity; appraisal by peers, supervisors and self-appraisal; measuring of efficiency & productivity; and balanced scorecard etc.; and
  • Job satisfaction is closely related with the work performance of the employees within an organization. For example, job satisfaction can creates more commitment to the employees and thus improve better work performance within the organization.

B. Key summary of the findings from primary and secondary data

The summary of the research findings from the primary and secondary data can be represent as follows-

  • The organization may need to consider some particular issues and matters in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees. These include- organizational structure, organizational culture, job design and job description, nature of supervision and leadership style, and organization’s policies and regulations etc.;
  • The organizational can adopt and implement some tools and techniques for the purpose of ensuring job satisfaction that has impact on the work performance of the employees. The major tools and techniques include- financial and non-financial reward system; empowerment and power delegation; and involvement of employee into decision making process etc.;
  • There is significant role of the leader and/or manager within the organization to motivate the employees that can increase job satisfaction and thus better work performance from them. The management personnel of the case studied organization have agreed that there should be appropriate application of motivational tools and techniques by the leader and/or manager to motivate employees in relation to increase job satisfaction and better work performance of employees;
  • The majority of the general employees are working for 1-2 years and they are not sure regarding their job satisfaction within the case studied organization;
  • The majority of the general employees have mentioned that salary is the prime concern for the job satisfaction and thus work performance followed by other factors such as working environment, relations with other employees, organizational structure & culture and job design & job description etc.;
  • Most the general employees are satisfied with the following aspects- relationships with other employees, work itself, and overall company’s polices and regulations. On the other hand, majority of the general employees are dissatisfied with current organizational structure, payment system, career opportunities and level of involvement in decision making process etc.; and
  • The organizational workplace (diversity and equal opportunities) is very favourable for the general employees in relation to create job satisfaction and thus work performance of them within the organization.

Recommendations

Based on the primary and secondary data and information, it can be said that majority of the general employees are satisfied in some cases that affecting the job satisfaction. Thus, the author would like to provide following recommendations both for the academic perspective and organizational perspective.

A. Recommendations in respect to academic perspective

The recommendations in respect of academic perspective are as follows-

  1. This research report will be able to improve existing theories and practices in relation to that factors that influence job satisfaction and thus improve work performance of the employees within an organization, particularly into the hospitality and hotel industry;
  2. There is some gaps into the knowledge regarding the measuring level of job satisfaction within the hospitality industry, so this report will be able to provide some tools and techniques that can be applied for the measuring job satisfaction;
  3. The existing gaps into the knowledge in relation to measuring the work performance can be eliminate or minimize through the identified approaches in this research report within the case studied organization; and
  4. This research report will be able to represent very clear discussion and exploitation about the relationships between job satisfaction and work performance as well as the roles of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees within an organization.

B. Recommendations in respect to organizational perspective

The recommendations in respect of organizational perspective are as follows-

  1. The organization needs to change the current organizational structure for the purpose of proper communication of knowledge and information from the top management people to the general employees to achieve organizational goals and objectives;
  2. The organizational should continue the current practices and approaches within the workplace for the better involvement and participation of all employees into the decision making process within the organization;
  3. There should be better payment systems as well as both financial and non-financial reward systems for the general employees within the organization;
  4. There should be regular meetings and gatherings within the general employees and top management personnel to share knowledge and information as well as to collect feedback and suggestions from the general employees;
  5. The organization should introduce new bonus schemes, extra facilities, and extra benefits to the general employees to increase job satisfaction that will increase and improve the efficiency and productivity of them;
  6. There is no specific guidance and prospect for the future career development and opportunities within the organization, so there should be proper steps by the organization to highlight career development and opportunities; and
  7. The organization should adopt and implement on regular basis both measuring of job satisfaction and work performance and thus provide relevant support and guidance to improve the skills and competencies that can create more job satisfaction and better work performance.

Self reflection of overall research

The researcher has been working within the case studied organization for nearly 2 years, so the selection of the organization was perfect in relation to investigate and evaluate the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance. The researcher was self-motivated and self-initiated that was vital to complete the research project and thus to prepare standard research report. The researcher has used three most common and effective research methods such as document analysis, semi-structured interview and questionnaire survey that were very effective and appropriate to collect and gather all relevant data and information from the case studied organization. In fine, the researcher would like to opine that the overall research activities as well as the research report were very satisfactory by the researcher and by the supervisor in relation to investigate and evaluate the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, case study of Grange Hotels, UK.

Future research opportunities

During the critical review of literature and primary research, the author has explored some issues, concepts, problems and opportunities that can be use as future research project. Some of these issues, concepts, problems and opportunities may need further investigation and thus may conduct as future research project. For instance, the author has explored that the career development and opportunity is vital concern for the job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employee within an organization. So, how the career development and opportunity can affect the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization can be regard as future research project.

 Research project conclusion

This research project was based on the investigation and evaluation of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance within an organization, case study of Grange Hotels, UK. The researcher has collected and gathered data and information as much as possible from different sources- primary, secondary and tertiary. The research findings have been presented in most effective and appropriate ways that was able present both primary and secondary research findings. Thus, at the end, the author opine that this research project was most standard research report in relation to the investigation and evaluation of the effect of job satisfaction on the employee’s work performance, case study of Grange Hotels, UK.

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