Amyloid plaques in the brain


Amyloid is a medical term that refers to fibrous proteins that are insoluble. They are made up of polypeptides and proteins that are folded. Polypeptides occur naturally in the human body system. The folded protein structures modify the correct configuration making them interact with other cell mechanism resulting to fibrils that are insoluble. Fibrils are linked to pathology of many human diseases. When amyloid accumulates in excess in the human body, it results to amyloidosis.

Amyloid plaques develop and stick on the outer nerve cells. During the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease protein molecules disintegrate giving beta amyloid. Beta amyloid does not relate to the neurons. It’s toxic and begins to kill neurons in the brain. The formation of beta amyloid and why it results to the death of other cells in the brain is still unexplained.

Some scientists think that when beta amyloid disintegrates, it releases free radical substances that end up attacking the neurons. Another explanation to this is that beta amyloid forms a hole on the membrane of the neuron which allows unrestricted amounts of calcium to go in and it ends up killing the neurons. Calcium assists in the normal neuron function as long as it’s regulated. As beta amyloid continues to function, more neurons die. The end result is the formation of plaques which is a combination of neurons that are degenerating and the remaining protein clumps of amyloid.

Accumulation of the clumps and protein begin in the brain since the human body system is unable to break them down. So what is the reason why the beta amyloid does not dissolve? ApoE4 gene drawn in Alzheimer’s disease causes a genetic malfunction. This gene gives out protein that surrounds the beta amyloid making it insoluble by the body. In the long run beta amyloid forms plaques that build up in the brain.

Accumulation of the amyloid plaques in the brain also results from free radicals. Free radical functions in the body by building the immune system making the body less susceptible to diseases. When the level of free radicals increases beyond the required limit, the balance in the neuron is interfered with. Nerve cells that are responsible for the production of beta amyloid will enhance the production of free radicals. With this, it is said that free radicals heighten the production of beta amyloid.

Beta amyloid forms a large part of amyloid plaques. Same plaques will be noticed in muscle disease – body myositis and amyloid angiopathy which affects the cerebral. What makes up the plaque? Amyloid fibres form the main plaque, this looks like a mesh of fibrillar. Recent studies show that beta amyloid is behind the growth of Alzheimer’s disease. Beta amyloid forms a large component of parenchyma and amyloid vascular. As already known, beta amyloid is toxic to the neurons and enhances lesions in cerebrovascular. If the accumulation of the beta amyloid is not taken care of, the resulting end is cells disease. Efforts have been placed to check on the formation of the beta amyloid which is the main reason behind Alzheimer’s disease.


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