E-Marketing and E-Commerce In Tourism


Introduction

Inside the tourism business tourism destination is a critical and important component of the tourism system where most of importance and dynamic elements of tourism occur (Cooper, 2008). Destination Marketing Organisations (DMOs) plays a significant part in the tourism expansion and marketing of the area. Subsequently in the late 19th century and for maximum of that time DMOs have played an active role in the development of tourism worldwide (Pike & Ryan., 2004). Online marketing must not be a discrete activity, must be an integral portion of the marketing database of DMOs (Sigala, 2002).

 Internet has developed a progressively significant means of endorsing and distributing tourism services. Online boards of DOMs can be shaped through the give-and-take linking of websites, where clients can access information and buying multiple components of a holiday online (Palmer & McCole, 2000). Social media is still in its beginning for the reason that of its continuous development with the up-to-minute expansion of Internet and information technologies (Chan & Guillet, 2011).

Tourism and Internet are two central and associated elements in present world. Information Technology has shaped an infinite change in tourism industry’s approaches, structure and procedures. Above and beyond this issue has not just affected one country rather the entire tourism structure has been changed due to the entrance of information technology in tourism.  Internet business has transformed traditional business models and has given growth to new kinds of business models. But there is no generally suitable definition of the business model’s concept. Business models have been well defined and classified in many different ways. The probably best-known description and classification of electronic models is explained, as a business model is structural design for the product, service and information flows, a explanation of the various business actors and of their roles, as well as a depiction of the potential benefits of these actors and finally a explanation of the sources of revenue (Timmers, 2003). Furthermore he recognizes the requirement of providing a marketing strategy, in order to complete a business mission. He Further categorizes the eleven generic e-business models he summaries, according to their degree of innovation and their functional incorporation.

Information is very decisive in tourism subdivision so it has been among the first to adventure new technologies and innovations. Tourists need new foundations of information in order to benefit them to plan their trips and choose between replacements tourist journey. For the reason that it is an information-rich industry, it hinge on conclusion and developing new means to distribute travel and warmth products and services, marketing information to buyers and providing comfort and ease to travelers (Ying & Zhou, 2007)

The introduction of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in recent decades has fashioned new openings for the tourist attraction of inaccessible and outlying areas (Giaoutzi & Nijkamp, 2006). The development of Internet is increasing immensely and thousands of users are inflowing information market on day-to-day basis. Innovative technologies have influenced the overall segment and more precisely destinations, interims of encouraging themselves and upcoming potential visitors. Many websites offer web facilities or interconnection to other types of information systems in order to fulfill end users’ particular information needs.

The concept of e-tourism

Information is the vital signs of tourism industry. Well-timed and exact information, related to customers need is a key to tourism production and fulfilment of demand (Buhalis, 2008)Tourism is mostly grounded on information from tourism providers and businesses to consumers. ICTs play a vibrant role for the effectiveness of tourism enterprises and destinations as well as for the entire business. Many times World Wide Web is the best place to advance specific sites and informatics tools on behalf of tourism companies that are in search of new methods to enlarge their market share, to increase their customers by modifying products and services to their needs or to reschedule their business strategies and processes as well. The e-tourism idea includes all business’ operations from E-commerce, E-finance and E-marketing, to E-purchase, E-accounting, E HRM and E-R&D In future, e-tourism packs together three distinctive disciplines: business administration, statistics systems and tourism, and administration.

E-Marketing and E-Commerce In Tourism

Expansions in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) impact all marketing functions and the electronic marketplace brings new ways of marketing. It is understandable that ICT reduces marketing cost, eliminates intermediaries, and redefines marketing relationships (Rayport & Jaworski., 2002). The potential benefits resulting from e-commerce can be band together into two groups:

  • Better-quality efficiency of current activities
  • Broaden chances and new actions.

E-commerce has been well defined as being “every kind of commercial contact or transaction between two or more individual, being done with electronic resources and network, and having as straight or indirect purpose to sell products and services” (Soteriades, Aivalis, & Varvaressos., 2004). It seems that this classification embraces all marketing actions.

Rayport & Jaworski (2002) recommend that in order to compete in the electronic era, businesses must be equipped to use technology-mediated channels, generate internal and outside value, express technology convergent approaches, and organise means around information and relationships. On the marketing side, interaction or communication and personalization are among the new demands of the knowledge economy, whereby mass markets are a miracle of the past and communicating markets are the future (Wind & Mahajan., 2002; Rayport & Jaworski., 2002).

ICT Influences on Marketing Mix

Confirmation and proof shows that ICT inspirations nearly every aspect of services marketing and the main stages in the marketing mix. Kotler has iterated the “Ps” (Product, Price, Promotion and Place) and “Cs” to imitate the consumer positioning that is central to modern services marketing thinking in an era of growing competition (Kotler, 1999). Product means Customer worth; Price means Cost to the buyer; Advancement means Communication and Place means Distribution, right to use or Convenience. Furthermore, the innovative four variables have been expanded to encompass Individuals, Process (of service delivery) and Physical Proof or design. These new marketing orientations are mainly applicable in the tourism field.

ICT has numerous inspirations in the arenas of tourism and marketing. The Internet establishes a medium of interactive communication and proposal various uses for marketing purposes. Technological improvements allow customers and businesses alike to transform the way that they conduct exchange transactions, which are the essential of all marketing.

The main effects of ICT on the principal procedures in marketing contain:

Market exploration and marketing information systems: Customer Relationship Marketing (CRM): The Internet has a catalytic agent role in CRM applications. The e-CRM gears donate to the implementation of various marketing activities (Soteriades, Aivalis, & Varvaressos., 2004; Kanetaki, 2012)

Strategic Planning and Networking: Computer-generated marketing companies provide delivery and marketing services (Vlachopoulou & Manthou., 2003). They enable and make available a platform for the give-and-take of information and for e-commerce transactions for a widespread range of products. The Internet also permits the conception of virtual enterprises in which ICT offers the linkages – mainly networks for micro-businesses.

Promotional and Public Relations: The Internet varieties available an entirely new way to communicate to directed customer groups.

Information materials: The commercial improvements of Web sites made the Internet an outstanding and comparatively low-cost medium for creating customer consciousness using multimedia methods.

Sales Promotion and Pricing: The Internet is a perfect medium for communicating prices, special offers and late accessibility of product. Through connectivity between databases and yield management programs, sales promotions can now be modified to individuals.

Distribution and access: ICT has come to lead the industry’s way of thinking regarding the role and costs of distributing travel products. As a new network for direct marketing communications, the Internet is also recreation of distribution. Distribution channels are the innovative forums for product innovation and development; they launch the parameters for pricing against competitors and are becoming the most important tool for sales promotion and merchandising. Consumer behaviour: The Internet – as a communication and advertising tool is important, not only because clients buy products and services via electronic channels, but also due to its widespread use

YouTube Community Interactions for Marketing

The design of communication medium shows a critical role if one is to successfully apply the YouTube-based communications for destination marketing. Characteristically, the YouTube platform inspires a synchronous communication through enabling two-way communications among users. This is a low cost way to connect with a mass market; a well-crafted message will instigate the desire in the consumers to visit the destination. Moreover the feedback option will generate a two-way communication, where audience will share their experience regarding the advertisement if they found it appealing or not.

Turkey, Spain and Dubai a Tourist Destination

Turkey is situated in a topography where Asia and Europe meet and the eastern and the western cultures crisscross. Turkey that has numerous natural chances in terms of tourism and strengthened its efforts to use these openings wants to have a superior share in the world tourism.

Turkey that wants to mature the tourism subdivision whose share in the economy of the country is growing also makes stronger communication activities in this field. They have proper maintained websites through which they keep in contact with the customer. They properly advertise their country tourism through marketing and e marketing.

Dubai made important strategic investments in the field of tourism in the last fifteen years. Though Dubai does not have appropriate natural chances for tourism, it increased its tourism potential knowingly with its strategic investments and made a jump in this field. On the other side, Dubai, which is a Muslim Emirate located in Asia, has a different art, music, and literature. Dubai was a selection of in order to define the importance it gave to communication happenings and the Internet in the context of the success it attained over its investments.

Spain tourism is a significant part of their economy, the country market itself as a tourist destination to enhance the revenues and they do it my promoting it on various mediums and also associate with sport to attract larger consumer base.

Efficiency of communication policies can be provided with plans that prepared by observing target audiences features and designed for achieving differentiation between competitors by noticing competition environment.

Conclusion

The different economy is fundamentally varying supply designs and traditional purchaser behaviour. A main matter for all vacation industry business is how to change their companies from the past economy to an innovative economy business. It has been recommended in (Soteriades, Aivalis, & Varvaressos., 2004), that only a planned or strategic marketing approach can permit the tourism industry to take advantage of ICT (Information and communication Technology). Tourism businesses have to ponder and approach the Internet as a form of technology contribution robust potential a set of tools that can be used in almost every market and business.

The worlds in which we live fluctuations are more speedily happen than the past and the expansions in the arenas of computer and Internet. These technological tools which allows storing, effective parameter, manufacture and handling of information, transferal information to anyplace in the world, presenting the information to facilitate and its practice, originate being used in more fields related to human in each transitory day. Consequently, it roots in innovative changes in the lives of individuals as well as the society. Communication and information technologies and therefore the Internet are now tactical fundamentals that affect the destiny of countries and regulate whether the countries are first or third class countries. The nature of tourism is requisite to found operative and joint communication channels between destinations and their target audiences, to convey messages precisely, fast, privately and cost effectively by acceptable communication channels. In other words it requires handling communication activities successfully.

Advantages of Internet as a communication tool makes it very important and effective channel for service industries, especially for tourism. However the most important issue is to manage internet based communication activities effectively. Destination management organisations have some advantages to differentiate between the other competitor destinations by managing Internet facilities effective ways.

When websites of these three countries are evaluated, there are differences in the extents to which they are successful in achieving their primary goals which are guiding users, contributing to the image of the country and increasing the tourism potential of the country. Although the website of Turkey’s Ministry of Tourism has live colors, it is ascertained that it is not designed in a way that can draw the attention of users and enable them to surf easily. Turkey, which mostly includes textual elements, edited visual elements differently from textual elements. Dubai’s Ministry of Tourism has a simple website which is designed on a white background and it supports textual elements with visual elements. Spain’s Ministry of Tourism supports written texts which draw the attention of users and responds to the possible demands of the users related to tourism with visual elements which is more compatible compared to the other two countries and can address the user.

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