Innovation and Business Development

Executive summery

The economy in Egypt is at a crisis due to shortage of water supply to farming lands and domestic purposes. The increasing population in Egypt is challenged by insufficient water supply in the land for home-based usage and farm work. This report is focused on the causes of the water inadequacy from an individual level to a national level. It is also focused on the involved parties in the decreasing water supply for irrigation and domestic use. In sufficient water supply is found to temper with the active productivity of the farmers as well as passive productivity through ill health. Initiatives to innovate the irrigation measures are recommended that include construction of dams, use of conservative irrigation plans, reclaiming of land, cleaning of canals among others. The report recommends on personal responsibility and the uptake of a water pump that requires little fuel to pump water into farms during drip irrigation. This is a simple strategy that would benefit the local, low in come families while increasing the yield of food and cash crops.


The contemporary crisis of water in Egypt is raising an alarming concern for the future of the inhabitants of the land. This is because Egyptians rely heavily on the water from Nile for their survival, and without it their lives would be at risk. There has been complains on the struggling population, especially the low income earners, who fail to access pure home-based usage water as well as water for their irrigation schemes. A pump manufacturer from the northern Europe has realized the current struggle and the future risk of the low earning Egyptians and the entire nation at large.  It is the desire of the pump manufacturer to establish an innovation projects on the water irrigation. The manufacturer holds strong objectives that pertains water wastage, water distribution and water re-using models. This report seeks to exhibit the current condition of the water crisis, its causes and impacts, as well as the innovation principles and methods that would suit the situation in Egypt.

Causes of water shortages

Egypt is widely known as a desert country due to its insufficient supply of water. The only source of water for the entire country that serves over eighty million people is the Nile and its delta. Natural factors, poor management, misuse and foreign intervention among other factors have caused the increasing shortage water supply for the people’s consumption.

Climatic factors

Egypt is entirely categorized among the desert countries in the world. This is because the country rarely receives rainfall as a natural source of water. This implies that the life for Egyptians is depended on the rainfall in other regions, which supply water into River Nile. The only source of water in the country is River Nile, which serves the entire country for their farm work as well as home-based uses. The entirely dependence of river Nile may be risky if the water contained in the river is not enough for the multitudes of depended people.

Population concerns

Statistics reveal that the country is recording increase in population at an alarming rate. For example, every three weeks reports births of over three thousand children, which translate to high rate of population increase. The population growth has ben rated at 91 percent since the 1990’s, and the trend is progressive(You tube com., 2012, web). Increase in population increases the demand for water supply from the limited resource, River Nile. A larger number of people need water while the water supply or sources is insufficient for the large numbers of people.

Poor management

The government of Egypthas sole responsibility of ensuring that water from River Nile is protected from other predating nations. According to a colonial era treaty, Egypt is the only country which is authorized to utilize the waters of River Nile up to 90 percent of the waters (You tube com., 2012, web).  That is, the mandate to protect or authorize the usage of water from River Nile is bestowed on the Egyptian Government. Conversely, the nine neighboring countries that River Nile passes through are not happy about the endorsement of Egypt toRiver Nile. For example, Ethiopia has established projects to construct mega dams from the waters of River Nile, which would translate to reduced supply of water to Egypt up on the completion of the construction.

The government has been implementing measures to reclaim the desert land through construction of high tech canal systems. For instance, Turshka is a desert region that the government has started establishing high tech canal system to supply water to the land. Conversely, the region is not inhabited by farmers who can make use of the water system. The water has been pouring to the ground without people to utilize it. As much as the reclaiming of the desert lands it taking place, the government has a role to ensure the land is utilized by ciotizens. This could be done through the people’s diversification from the densely populated regions to the reclaimed land to utilize the water projects there.

Foreign investment

Egyptian government has collaborated with several foreign investors who have established their business plans in Egypt. These individuals are given the first priority and concerns by the government concerning water. Resources that could have been utilized generally among the Egyptians are directed towards the investors who earn the country a lot of revenue. For example, a Saudi Arabian Agricultural development company, Kingdom, has established partnership with Egypt to utilize the waters from the Nile on its Agricultural activities(You tube com., 2012, web). This, among other foreign investors, drains the country’s natural resources at the expense of the low income earners in Egypt. In addition, Ethiopia has established its water transport system through travelling dhows that use the River Nile water ways. In one side, the Egyptians benefit from the employment opportunities created from the transport system, while on the other hand they lose the governance over the waters of River Nile.

Natural disasters

Farmers, fishermen and town dwellers in Egypt rely on the supply of water from River Nile. Sometimes, the occurrence of natural calamities in the land such as storms affects the supply of water to the needy Egyptians. Farmers are the major culprits of the effects of storms within the land. This is because most of the farmers rely on the government’s project of pumping water to the irrigation lands. For example, a recent storm caused a wreckage of the electronic pumping systems, which caused the crops dry up due to lack of sufficient water. Over dependence on the government projects of water supply may fail to suit the needs of every farmer among other users.

Flood irrigation

Farmers who use Nile water for their crops have not developed suitable methods to preserve water. This is observed through their use of flood irrigation methods such as furrow systems. These methods lead to excessive wastage of water, because they let water to places that do need the water. In addition, the flood irrigation systems are prone to evaporation due to the sunny weather in Egypt. This causes a lot of water to be wasted, which could have been spared for later use.


The banks of river Nile are densely populated. This is because people find the regions productive due to the ease access of water for irrigation as well as home-based uses. The high populations, however, have contributed to pollution of the water through release of garbage into the water bodies. Garbage clogs the tunnels and canals that channel water to farming lands. Garbage released to the water not only chokes the canals but also contaminates the water, making it unfit for human consumption as well as for irrigation. The people in Egypt depend entirely on the government’s role to withhold or control pollution of water in the river. This is witnessed through the people’s cry for help in cleaning the garbage in the water canals, which has resulted from their own irresponsible acts.

Impacts of insufficient water supply

The unlimited supply of water for the needs of the Egyptians has caused adverse effects to the lives of the people. For example, farmers who rely on water from Nile for the irrigation of their farms have been forced to use sewage water for their crops(You tube com., 2012, web). This is because of the inadequacy of water from River Nile to use for the irrigation. In addition, the Egyptian government has failed to construct underground drainage systems that do not allow for the access of sewage water. Water in adequacy has ensued to the use of sewage water as substitute in varied application. That is, the Egyptians are forced to do what is not expected of them as a means of survival.  In return, the heath of the Egyptians is at a risk. This is because consumption of sewage water or its usage ion the food crops are not healthy. The health of consumers of foods grown wit h sewage water is attacked with diseases such as kidney failure among others. In addition, the increasing shortage of water in Egypt places the lives of the forthcoming generations at a risk. Failure to put in place long lasting solution-based approaches would mean hardships for the future generation.

Innovation principles and methods

The currently irrigation methods are quite expensive for low income farmers who are not favored by the governments projects. Having interacted with most of the farmers in land while trying to resolve the water crisis in the region, Proximity Designs is a non –profit organization that is well conversant with the needs of the Egyptian farmers(You tube com., 2012, web). The success of the innovation project by the European pump manufacturing company would be founded on the consideration of some principles and methods to resolve the crisis.

Personal responsibility

Egyptians have been leading a depended life on the government to take action on River Nile and the water crisis. The people need to realize that personal responsibility would play a major concern for the people’s life through prevention of water pollution as well as observance of water preservation. The people would clean the canals and remove any garbage chocking them and hindering the flow of water to the desired destinations. Personal responsibility would reduce the overdependence of Egyptians on the government and would enhance self initiative in resolving the water crisis.

Water conservative approaches

The water pump would be effective if only water conservation methods are observed. Initially, the furrow and spraying methods wasted a lot of water through evaporation or spread to unrequired zones.   Drip method would do the people a favor because it is cheap and helps in conserving water. Local people can acquire drip irrigation sacks that are available at the Proximity Designs for their irrigation purposes. This is because the method can be sustained by little diesel fed to the water pump. This is quite economical in terms of the expense of fuel and time used during watering the crops. One can be able to run other activities while the pump is running the drip irrigation.  In addition, the method would help conserve water that could have ben lost through evaporation or other flooding irrigation methods.

Storage of water is an important conservative measure that would ensure availability of clean waterfor home-based purposes. Thus could be enhanced through educating the inhabitants on the importance of attaining water containers and tanks for their domestic purposes. The containers would be important in storing water which the local farmers can use for healthy lives. Healthy lifestyles enhanced through use of clean water would foster productivity because the labor force would be available. Resources used on medication could be utilized for other beneficial activities.

Other than the reclaiming of desert land, the government has a sole responsibility   to increase the amount of water found in River Nile. As the cry for most Egyptian is, River Nile is providing limited water to the inhabitants of Egypt. There is need for construction of mega dams just like the Ethiopians have done. These would be important for holding water when the rains have fallen and there is plenty f it in the river. Dams would be beneficial at individual level as well as state level, because the availability of irrigation water and the pump to run the irrigation project .Most low income earners have a piece of land   to farm, but the unavailability  of sufficient water for irrigation stands out a stumbling block. The government’s initiative to create water holding bodies would be a solution to most of the farmers who rely on farming. With sufi9cient water supply, crop yield will increase. This is because farmers will have an opportunity to grow variety of food stuffs that can be consumed domestically or exported. By so doing the level of income would increase and theindividuals will be able to lead independent lives.


In summation, the water crisis in Egypt is a manageable issue with strategic schemes put in place. There are several factors that contribute to the shortage of water in Egypt, ranging from individual to climatic, to government to third parties such as foreign investors. Innovations on the irrigation measures can work best for the farmers and the state at large. There is need for measures to conserve water by using it sparingly, construction of water bodies like dams and avoiding flood irrigations that are prone to evaporation of water.  A water pumping machine would help cut the expense of fuel and tragedies caused by storms on the electric-powered pumps.  A joint effort among the farmers and the government is required to facilitate water conservation and reduction of pollution of water for sufficient supply of this crucial resource.