Secondary Airport for South East Of Queensland


SELECTION ONE: Introduction

Purpose of project

The purpose of this report is to the selection of location and characteristics of a secondary airport for the South East of Queensland, Australia. Actually, Brisbane Airport is approaching capacity and is becoming crowded. Also the surrounding land type is acting as a major barrier for the expansion of airport. Therefore, to fulfill the increased demand of population and share the burden on Brisbane Airport, a secondary airport has to be made within South East of Queensland. We are given three options, out of which we have to choose one for the creation of competitive and diverse aviation transport sector in Queensland. The available options include:

  • Upgrading of Gold Coast Airport
  • Upgrading of Sunshine Coast Airport
  • Development of a new facility in Toowoomba

Selection of an option

Of all the three options the last option appeared to be the best and most feasible. Upgrading either of the coasts will be costly and less economical than the third option. Therefore the area which has been selected for this particular assignment is all about Toowoomba which is located in South East, Queensland, and Australia ( Dragicevich and Harding, 2011). This country is nearby to the city of Brisbane. This is basically a small city in town with a total population of 2.19 million (Admin, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2011-12, 2013). According to the population, it is known as the 2nd populous city of the country.

Significance of choice

Toowoomba is a University based and Cathedral City and it hosts the Carnival of Flowers in Australia in each year. Apart from the Flower carnival and exhibitions, Easter fest is also held each year annual basically in the Easter Weekends (Admin, Toowoomba Camival of Followers, n.d). Toowoomba has been regarded as the city of Gardens as there are around 150 public parks located in the city which developed the city into a regional center for the business and government based services. The geographical importance of this particular city is quite high and situated above the sea level. The government of Australia is held responsible to manage the things of the Public Parks and other authorities accordingly. This is a beautiful city as the level of greenery is quite high in the country. The beauty which can be seen in this particular city is higher than that of the other cities of Australia. The historical presence and importance of Toowoomba cannot be denied accordingly because it has number of historical buildings in it. The history of Toowoomba has been preserved in the buildings. There are numerous important buildings like Toowoomba City Hall and Royal Bull’s head Inn.

The climate of the city is perfect as the climate is quite hot in this particular region in total. Due to low population of the city not much development phases have been applied and deployed in this (Admin, About Toowomba, n.d). Toowoomba but its attraction for the tourists cannot be denied from any angle. This particular region has been developed as an important regional business center for the country as a whole. There are number of foods and festivals that have been organized in this particular region and the tradition of the same cannot be matched with any other city of Australia. Also there are many known and famous universities here

Considering all the three available options, developing Toowoomba is the most rational option. The place not only has geographical significance but also has great potential of developing economically. Developing this would help the state to improve overall. It will also enhance the repute of the state itself. This again makes it a better option than others.

Summary of Report

The report is about the issue of resolving the overcrowded Brisbane Airport in Australia by developing Toowoomba for the creation of secondary airport. The report starts by discussing the purpose of project, the problem and the option chosen as solution. Following this, section two consists of needs analysis that explains the reason and evidence for the selected option. It also includes a heading about identification of stakeholders and areas of potential synergy and   conflict. Then section three is about employment structure of the air plane. Section four is a deep and thorough research of this. It has discussed every point mentioned earlier in detail. It describes the need of stakeholders, the design of airport and SWOT analysis. The last two sections are very short and brief. They describe the ongoing management and planning issues.

SECTION TWO: Needs Analysis

Australia has now become Heaven for the investors and tourists because of its increasing economy and unmatchable potential (Admin, Why is the Australian dollar so strong?). The country has done an exceptional job at the time of economic crisis, which is again an important sign for the companies work in this particular region. The amount of immigrants has been increasing tremendously from last few years and due to this particular stance, the traffic towards the company has been increased heavily (McLean, 2012).

Brisbane is one of the most important places of Australia and it is known as the financial hub of the country. Now the problem is the Brisbane Airport is approaching its capacity and some strategy has to be undertaking in order to expand. We are taking the development of new facility in Toowoomba. Toowoomba is basically a city of Queensland and the reason behind choosing this particular option on other two is that this development will be effective for the country as a whole. Upgrading the Gold Cast Airport and Sunshine Airport will not overcome on the problem of approaching limits, but development of the city Toowoomba for a new airport would be more worthwhile and has the capacity to absorb high amount of people.

Evidence for the need of secondary air port

Employment is a condition and scenario which comes under the ambit of Macroeconomics in total and it is an important provision from the viewpoint of a country. There is a comparison is available of the year 1976 and 2006 in the employment sector in different sectors of Toowoomba and the same is mentioned below in table and graphical format in total (Queenisland, 2011).

Sectors 1976 2006 Proportion Change
Wholesale and Retail 22.7 22.4 -1.32159
Manufacturing 13.5 12.2 -9.62963
Health and Community Services 10.8 12.7 17.59259
Finance andBusiness 6.4 9.7 51.5625
Education 7.9 10.5 32.91139
Construction 10.3 5.8 -43.6893

The same data is shown in the form of pie chart below:

This particular provision and graph is showing that the stance of employment in the manufacturing sector was the highest in the year 1976, manifesting a total provision of 22.7%, while it is 13.5% for manufacturing sector in the same year. Apart from this Health and Community Services, Construction and education are some of the important things which have high proportion in total manifesting total proportions of 10.8%, 10.3% and 7.9% respectively (Queenisland, 2011). A significant change has been envisaged in the year 1976 and the graph of the same year is mentioned below

In the year 2002, the stance of wholesale and retail were 22.4%, while it is 12.7% and 12.2% associated with health and community services and manufacturing respectively. Apart from these sectors, there are some other sectors as well which performed exceptionally well in the year 2006, which predominantly are, education and construction manifesting a net proportion of 9.7% and 5.8% as a whole. Australia Government which is in intense situation due to the high arrival of tourists within the country and especially under the historical cities like Toowoomba, which is at one place increasing the financial belongings of the country and the city and at the same time, it is highly effective as well from the viewpoint of the country in total. Due to heavy influence of the international and domestic tourists the airport of Brisbane is under severe pressure and has to required extensive space to settle down all the tourists in a perfect and well organized place in total (Queenisland, 2011).

Evidence for increased tourism is the country

The Toowoomba Visitor Information Centre (VIC) is operated and funded by Toowoomba Regional Council (Council) to facilitate tourism growth within the Toowoomba region. Setting apart Toowoomba from other VICs is the significant emphasis placed on developing and maintaining ‘one-on one’ relationships with community leaders and tourism partner organizations. The VIC’s volunteer program is critical to its success in creating strong links with the local community and providing a valuable community resource. Tourism is an effective stance from the standpoint of a city or country which is an essential thing for the productivity of a city in total. Every city has a certain advantage in it and it is almost the same in Toowoomba (Queenisland, 2011). The VIC of Toowoomba has a strong statistics and it is available all along. Mentioned below table and graph is showing the same,

Visitor Origin 2009 2010
Toowoomba          10,700          15,656
Brisbane, Sunshine and Gold Coast          33,871          28,799
Rest of Qld            9,621          11,017
Interstate          16,295          15,961
Overseas            7,287            6,748
Carnival of Flowers          14,399          15,025

From the analysis, it is clear that the essence of tourism and international people to come in the origin of Toowoomba and other important regions of Australia. A 46% increase has been envisaged in the year 2010 in Toowoomba in the total tourists of the people who visited Toowoomba. A 15% decrease has been envisaged in the tourists section of Brisbane, Sunshine and Gold Coast. Apart from the same, Rest of QLD and Carnival of Flower based tourism have also increased by 14.51% and 4.35% in the fiscal year 2012. Toowoomba is one of the major cities of Australia which has its importance from different standpoints.

In 2011, over 60 percent of the center’s volunteers base had celebrated 5 years or more of service including:

  • 7 volunteers with 20 years of service
  • 11 volunteers with 15 years of service
  • 15 volunteers with 10 years of service; and
  • 10 volunteers with 5 years of service

There is a waiting list of residents wanting to become a volunteer at the center. According to the Annual Visitor Satisfaction Survey, in 2011, 80 percent of respondents rated the center as either 4 or 5 on a scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied) for overall performance (Queenisland, 2011). The VIC has an operational target for a viable retail section within the center of a ‘customer spend ratio’ of 1. This is calculated by dividing the total retail takings (in dollar terms) by the total number of visitors. Recent results have indicated a positive growth trend in the ratio:

  • 2009/10: $1.35 per visitor
  • 2010/11: $1.52 per visitor
  • 2011/12: $1.83 per visitor

Toowoomba recorded an increase in domestic holiday and VFR (visiting friends or relatives) visitation in 2010, whilst the business market was weaker for the region (in contrast to the state trend). Toowoomba continued to see an increased number of visitors taking a short break trip of 1-3 nights in the region, particularly Brisbane and Darling Downs residents seeking affordability.

Similarly, interstate visitors from regional NSW increased their trips for a holiday. Couples travelling for a holiday drove the holiday market increase over the year. The family market also saw an upswing, but this was more subdued than for couples.

International visitation to Toowoomba declined over the year, driven by holiday and VFR markets, particularly from New Zealand (the region’s largest source of international visitors). In contrast to the state trend, visitation from the United Kingdom (UK) increased. The declines from Continental Europe were seen particularly from the youth market (under 30 years old). Some European source markets are yet to fully recover from the impacts of the GFC, with concerns around job security and personal finances continuing (Queenisland, 2011)fcapa.

 International visitors’ average length of stay in Toowoomba continued to climb in 2010, driven by working holiday visitors. International visitors on a working holiday contribute a significant proportion of the region’s international nights (20%).  International visitors on holiday (excluding working holiday) stayed in the Toowoomba region for approximately one week in 2010.  Domestic travel was dominated by short break trips (1-3 nights) in 2010, and this trend continued to support Toowoomba’s holiday results over the year, as the region sits firmly as a short break destination for residents of South East Queensland Country.

Identification of stakeholders

The stakeholders for an airport may be an individual or a group that is affected by the actions taken by airport authorities or officials. It is very important for the airport authorities to identify these individual or groups for both strategic decision making, marketing and for provision of services (ACRP, 2010). Any airport no matter where it is, features both external and internal shareholders. The internal shareholders include managers, owners, board of directors and the employees. When it comes to the external stakeholders, they include the society, suppliers, government, stakeholders, immediate community, concessionaries, airlines, regulatory authorities and others. In order ascertain the most important stakeholders, the airport authorities need to establish that what influence they have on the operations of the airport and what is their interest in the airport’s success?

Once they have been clearly identified, list down these stakeholders based on their interest in the airport and their influencing power over its direction. The characteristics of power and interest are distinct and they should be analyzed objectively and independently. Using these two factors, an airport organization can provide the basis for the developmental structure through requesting and utilizing comments and inputs (ACRP, 2010).

Stakeholders with interest and influencing power over the airport include the airport customers or flying travelers, influential community groups, local government bodies and officials, trade unions and others. Bringing these key stakeholders into the equation of the developmental process would ensure their acceptance and understanding of their stake and roles for the purpose of achieving collective success for the parties involved (Futterman, 2013).

Areas of potential synergy and conflict

Conflicts at an airport may be internal or external. Internal conflicts are those that relate to the internal stakeholders such as employees, departments, managers and other support staff. The external conflicts may be in the form of conflicts that occur between the passengers. Similarly the conflicts may also occur between the passengers and the administration of the airport.

When we talk about the internal conflicts that might occur while the development, strategic planning or the operations of the Toowoomba airport, they might either be interpersonal or may be related to the tasks that are assigned to different people.

The interpersonal disputes sometime also play a role in giving rise to work related disputes. This requires the role of a manager or leader of the project to rise to the occasion and resort to effective ways of resolving issues. To give you an example, the conflicts related to the airport project may be between the strategic experts and the architects about the structural dynamics of an airport. The best thing that the leader needs to do here is to clearly make demarcation between the jobs assigned to the different personals or individuals involved. If the strategic team wants something to make a part of the airport structure, but the architects consider it is impracticable or inappropriate to the structure, then the leader should take both of them on board and arrange for joint discussions and sessions. Communication will enable both the parties to understand each other point of view and an alternative or middle way can be followed (Ferrazzi, 2013).

Cooperation between all the departments or stakeholders that are involved at the developmental stage or during the operations of the airport is necessary because they all have their needs associated with the airport. Managers or project leaders need to synchronize the activities of all the departments so that each department can work in compliance with its own requirements and in compliance with the requirements or needs of the other stakeholders. This would lead to synergies in operation and will minimize conflicts.

SECTION THREE: Airport proposal

Employment structure

The first step here is to identify all the departments that will operate in an airport, and such identification will be made with reference to the functions that are needed to be performed. The thing to understand here is that an airport is also an organization and will obviously involve all the functions that are performed by any other organization. In line with the common functions, the airport will include departments such as administration, HR departments, planning departments, marketing and sales department, internal audit control department and the security department. Now when we move towards the departments that are specific to an airport, they include department of air terminal management, aircraft rescue departments, Engineering department, Police department, airline traffic control department etc.

The name of various departments has been discussed here because it will enable the authorities to make segmentation of the employees under these departments. Now the more the complex are the operations at an organization, the more detailed and widespread structure will be needed. This means that you will have more executive mangers, senior managers, assistant mangers, mangers and then the employees. The operations at are airport are quite technical and complex which means that are vast spread management and employee structure will be devised with clear demarcation between departments and their functions.  However effective training and then multi-tasking would result is the requirement of a smaller work force and a less complex employee and management structure (Doganis, 1991).

SECTION FOUR: Discussion

Proposed purpose for airport

The sole purpose and intent behind the idea of creating secondary airport and developing Toowoomba is only to share the increased burden of the Brisbane airport. The state is becoming crowded day by day and if this situation is not given significant consideration now, it will prove to be more threatening in future. Therefore it is essential to adopt some effective strategy and put it into action. In case the burden is maintained as such on Brisbane airport, its facilities and services will be affected. Obviously the same number of employers cannot facilitate three times more people entering airport. Poor performance of aviation sector will occur as a result and hence this will affect the viewpoint of tourists coming here. They will not like the idea of having a crowded airport where they have to wait for so long in order to get a minor service. In this way the tourism industry and hence the economy would be greatly affected. Hence it is extremely important to develop Toowoomba for creating a secondary airport here to resolve the problem and its consequences as soon as possible.

Needs of stakeholders

After you have identified and segmented the stakeholders that are involved at an airport, you need to analyze their goals, their needs or interest that they have in the facility. Effective alignment of the airport’s activities and strategies with its stakeholder needs and goals helps in devising a targeted and directed approach that is needed for its success. Measuring the performance parameters such as timely departure or customer satisfaction cannot be achieved without cooperation with the stakeholders.

Bringing a good chunk of internal and external stakeholders on a single scanning platform or session would help in exposing and testing multiple perspectives related to business, social, political and various other important issues. The following questions need to be asked to build the participation of the stakeholders in the process:

  • Who are the customers of the airport and what are their actual needs?
  • Who are the owners and investors and what are their goals?
  • What are the needs or goals of other stakeholders such as regulators (state bodies for regulating transportation DOTs, EPA, FAA and others?
  • Who are the immediate community that is affected by noise pollution or other concerns?
  • Who are the suppliers and what are their expectations?

Customers or the passengers of an airport

Passengers or customers are the key participants in the success of an airport. They can be segmented based on the quality of travel they want and the carriers they prefer. Some of them prefer to travel in LCC carriers that feature low fares and others like to go for full service carriers which provide various on board services. Similarly they can be segmented with reference to their purpose of travel as some travel for leisure and tourism and others travel for business purposes. Those travelers who are willing to pay high fares are more concerned about the quality of the service they render. This includes both the quality of travel of an airline and the quality of services that are provided at an airport before they board on the airplane. They want timely and effective services and want to avail those services readily.

The other class of customers without regards to the fact that they prefer LCC carriers is also looking for interactive and responsive services at an airport. This may include the point of interactions such as the information desk or the ticket counters, or the provision of utilities at an airport such as waiting lounges, washrooms, cafeteria and other similar facilities.  So the gist is that all the customers look out for quick and comfortable travel.

Owners, investors and their goals

Owners and investors at an airport can be the government, private organizations, individual stockholders, groups, suppliers or a combination of all of them. The basic goal of the owners or investors of an airport like any other facility is to improve its performance and maximize the profits that are generated through it. This will involve a large variety of principles and measures that are needed in both strategic decision making and its implementation. It is obviously a large facility where many private concerns might also be operating their businesses. You now see sales franchises of various well established brands being operated within the vicinity or airports. All of them have their interests in its affective working and growth because their fortunes are associated with it.

Employees

The needs of employees are again very much the same that you see with other business organizations. The first thing they need is an exceling role in the operations of an airport. From an operational point of view, they need accurately and timely information regarding all the aspects of the roles that they perform at the airport. If you consider the information desk, they should have all details of the rules and regulations involved in the check in procedures, the documentation and other information that is asked for by passengers.

Regulatory authorities

Regulatory authorities such as DOTs, FAA, EPA and others are basically operating for employing a control check on the operations of the airport. They want to make sure that all the procedures that are involved in the operations of the airport are quality, safe and timely. You can consider the transportation regulatory authorities who analyze all the mechanical, technical and other information about the operating of flights through the airport. All the regulatory bodies involved need to be rendered with regularly updated information for which they have official access rights (Hardaway, 1991).

Communities affected

Their interest of these communities may be with reference to the guidelines that have been provided to the airports by the local government. These guidelines might relate to maximizing the number of destinations that are served, increasing economic impact, and minimizing the emission of dangerous gasses and wastes along with noise.

Airport suppliers

The end users of the supplies that the suppliers provide to an airport are both the airport itself and the passengers. They include various contractors, equipment suppliers and consultancy firms. These suppliers and services providers include both suppliers for utility, products and equipment at the airport, and the suppliers for the on-board services. Both of them have the aim to maximize the number of people that travel through the airport so that the need of supplies can be maintained and even increased over time. Concessionaries and other services providers is an example of such suppliers (Prather, 2011).

Location of the airport

This aspect can be analyzed with reference to the passengers, the employees, the suppliers and the businesses that utilize the cargo carriage facilities of an airline. Passengers that travel for leisure and tourism are not that much concerned about the location of an airport but still they prefer that it should be at a location that is easily accessible.

However when we talk about businesses who have to use the airline cargo facilities for transporting their goods want that an airport should be close to the business market area or manufacturing zones of a town or city where the airport is located. The reason is that this will help them to minimize a lot of carriage cost which they have to incur on a regular basis.  From the point of view of the local residents, it should be as far from the living areas as possible so that they are not subjected to any noise pollution or other concerns. The government on the other hand ensures that an airport is not constructed in an area which is sensitive in terms of security and is not a residential or commercial area with connected markets or buildings. This makes it easy for them to take security measures for the facility.

Facilities

The facilities that are needed by stakeholders have been touched earlier in the discussion and here is a brief outline to it.  From the travelers’ point of view, an airport should have all the facilities that are necessarily needed for both utility and recreation. In terms of utility, it should have spacious lounges, more and more use of accelerators, tidy washrooms, easily interpretable electronic information boards, cafeteria and holy rooms etc.

It should also feature recreation or entertainment facilities so that passengers can use them in case of delay in flights or while being in transit between two locations. It might include gaming zones, cafes, shopping malls or even facilities like swimming pool or play land for kids. The contractors or the services providers that work on contractual basis need facilities such as storage facilities for safe keeping of their stocks, security services for their shops and supply of instant logistics.

Political and Social Factors influence

Politically Toowoomba is a well-organized and perfect city in total where in the stance of tourism would be on a higher scale in total. The state government is quite proactive as far as enhance the productivity of the city is concerned, and the stance of the Australian Government to develop the city on the international standards would certainly enhance the level of tourism bit further which would be equally beneficial for the city as a whole. The idea of expanding and developing this part of the country would certainly give an edge to the country in diverting much of its international and domestic tourists and manage them with perfection and with full of efficacy.

Socially, Australia is a big and multi ethnic country in which there is number of nations are lived together. The same stance has been found with Toowoomba as well, in which the essence of socialism would be on a higher node in total. When it comes to establish and develop the airport in this particular city, then it will become possible that the involvement of socialism would certainly increase in this city perfectly.

Capacity management

When we talk about capacity management an airport with reference to the need of the stakeholders, we need to consider facilities or areas such as car parking, coaching, office space, engineering facilities, full terminal, storage, warehousing, hangarage and coaching.

The capacity management for maintenance and expansion of these facilities will depend on the needs of the users that are associated with them. When we talk about car parking, almost all the stakeholders come into play because they all need an effective and spacious parking facility (Airport Capacity Solutions – Capacity., 2013). The need for expansion of a parking facility will depend on the data which tells the average number of cars and vehicles that are being parked in the parking area of the airport. Similarly their might be need for segmenting the parking areas with regards to the travelers, the suppliers, the employees at the airport etc. Moving on, the capacity management of the storage facilities or warehouses will be addressed with reference to the internal stakeholders of the airport such as service providers, suppliers, contractors operating their sales outlets or facilities at the airport or the customs staff for storing goods for clearance and late delivery

SWOT Analysis

The discussion of constructing a secondary airport and developing Toowoomba would be incomplete without carrying out a SWOT analysis of the purpose. It helps in determining the possible potential, risk factors and competitive advantages of the aim proposed.

Strengths: highly effective city, technological advancement, high pressure of both Domestic and International Tourists

Weakness: less awareness of the people regarding such development and expansion about this city. This city is powerful from resources point of view but it requires high payment to accomplish the target of development

Opportunities: development of the city will benefit the entire economy

Threat: pressure of external forces on the aim, government policies.

Design of airport

Constructing an airport is not an easy job for some known reasons. It requires considering so many important factors than finalizing anything. An airport consists of manifold departments and each of them has notable significance and hence cannot be ignored. For instance the airport will have and aviation services department that will deal with marketing and promotion strategies; and decide about the type of business services offered to their consumers and when shall they be offered. Likewise there is a finance department that includes finance, accounting, auditing, and supplies and also decides about the pricing. Other departments that would be created in the airport include legal department, quality assurance department, IT department, human resources management department and section that work on its security. A very important department of aviation sector is one about infrastructure maintenance and development department that deals household management, electric management, and aero planes maintenance. This is an important department and hence should have a very talented member of the board.   The duty of this section is to ensure everything of air plane id perfectly fine before the pilot begins the journey. In this way the infrastructure department is strongly associated with the security of its passengers. Most of the accidents that occur in this department are due to the carelessness of the employers working under this department.

Furthermore an IT department provides IT services and IT maintenance. This department has gained importance with advancement of time and technology. It has enabled passengers to make reservations from home by updating the site of airport with flight schedules. This is a tough job because the employers in this section have to update site consistently about the available seats. A single mistake in this arena disturbs the customer and hence induces in him a negative feeling of the respective flight. The picture on the left is the site of Qantas airline Australia. This site serves the same purpose as mentioned earlier. The site also includes important and unique features of the air plane company in order to attract the customers. Therefore IT department also plays an important role in online marketing of respective flight. This department cannot be ignored in any case. This is because there is so much competition in the existing market and hence it is necessary to have such a marketing strategy. It will be more helpful in our case because we are constructing a new airport.

Other than this an airport should have shops, cleaned washrooms and a comfortable sitting area so that the passengers can stay here for a while comfortably. Often the flights are delayed and passengers get stuck in the airport. Therefore a comfortable environment in necessary to make sure passengers feel relax and easy. There should also be shops so that anyone can buy anything they want to. However a common practice of shopkeepers in all the airports is that the prices of things are every high. This upsets passengers a lot. Therefore the finance department should make a deal with each and every single shop to offer considerable prices. Similarly there must also be small cafes or shops where one can buy something good and tasty to eat.

Airport will have two distinctive areas namely landside and airside. The landside will include parking lots, roads and public transportation stations.  Air side includes runaways, ramps as well as taxiways. However there must be a tightly controlled link between the two areas. There must also be terminals, security checks, and also places where one can claims luggage and buy tickers.

The parking lot should be big enough to accommodate large number of transport vehicles. There should also be enough roads so that there is no problem like traffic on airport. Problems like this will disturb the flight timings and will result in delays. Therefore while planning the airport construction it is important to consider all such points.

The picture on left shows the availability of car parking and train stations. Likewise it also has a clean waiting area and many shops for the passengers. Below is the picture of swimming pool in the airport. It helps people to relax after tiring flights. Such facilities are liked in situations like flight delays.

SECTION FIVE: Ongoing management

When devising a management structure for designing the strategies and the policies on which the whole construction and management of the airport will base, two basic stages are involved in the process. The first stage is to identify and clearly demarcate the structural and developmental needs that are involved, and then address those specific needs both in their individual capacity, and with reference to their impact on other needs and factors.

The identification process includes determining the requirements and the objectives of constructing or designing various facilities and services of the airport.  This involves goal clarification and assessment, defining the life cycle and scope, establishing teams, their structures and their requirements, and determining the resources or goods that are needed to be purchased. After determining the needs, the next step is understating the needs and specifies metrics and benchmarks for the same. You cannot just go for what you want because you need to analyze that what are the implications of your needs and what can be the potential outcomes. Moving on, the next phase will be the developing and designing of concepts for a facility or service that you need to construct or develop. This step involves exploring and devising options. After you have explored the available options, you will go for developing prototypes and details and will engage in risk assessment. The last and final step will be to validate the final design and evaluate the risk and performance for the same.

The important thing which we need to extract from the discussion is that it is not a single step process and is a continuous one. So every step of this ongoing process needs to be dealt separately and objectively.

SECTION SIX: Planning Issues

Planning is no doubt the basic step which leads towards devising any strategy or object, and developing a roadmap for the processes involved.

When drafting the main aspects of the planning issues that are involved in the construction and development of the airport, the management first needs to identify the characteristics of the outcomes that are needed. Unless they know what they want to achieve, they cannot plan the process towards its establishment. The next step while dealing with the planning issues is to address the measures or provisions that are needed to be devised. When we talk about the airport project, the main planning issue would be to list down all the requirements related to design and architect, regulatory requirements, quality assurance regulations, financing and budgeting, identifying stakeholders and bringing investors, and then planning of the implementation phase related to construction and development (Rainy, n.d).

They keys stakeholders that you need to take on board during the whole process include both the internal and external stakeholders. The key external stakeholders shall be the government, the suppliers, affected community and the customers. The government will obviously come into play because of the need to go through legal and documentation requirements and meeting the requirements of other regulatory bodies. Suppliers will be consulted to address the requirements of facilities and provisions that they want at the airport, so that they can operate effectively once it is functional. Similarly the airport authorities need to take feedback from the ultimate users or the travelers to know what they actually want, or to ascertain the flaws that these users find in other airports.

 Similarly the internal stakeholders include the owners, the investors and the employees. Owners and investors want to make a facility that features all the desired requirements from the point of view of both the internal and external stakeholders. Employees are also interested in a well-planned and implemented structure because the success of the airport would mean a bright future for them. The management needs to list down the requirements of these stakeholders as these requirements have their implications in both the planning and development phase.